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01.12.2018 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2018 Open Access

BMC Public Health 1/2018

Association between skirt size and chronic liver disease in post-menopausal women: a prospective cohort study within the United Kingdom Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS)

BMC Public Health > Ausgabe 1/2018
P. M. Trembling, S. Apostolidou, A. Gentry-Maharaj, J. Parkes, A. Ryan, S. Tanwar, M. Burnell, U. Menon, W. M. Rosenberg
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1186/​s12889-018-5308-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.



We investigated the association between self-reported skirt size (SS) and change in SS, and incidence of chronic liver disease (CLD) in a prospective cohort study of women recruited to the UKCTOCS trial.


Women recruited to UKCTOCS in England without documented CLD self-reported their current UK SS during trial participation and were asked to recall their SS when aged in 20s (via completion of a questionnaire 3–5 years after recruitment). Participants were followed up via electronic health record linkage and hazard ratios (HR) calculated for incident liver-related events (LRE).


Three hundred twenty-two (0.3%) of 94,124 women experienced a first LRE. Compared to SS ≤ 16, rates of LRE were higher in the SS ≥ 18 groups (both when aged in 20s and at questionnaire completion). Event rates were higher if there was no change in SS or an increase in SS, compared to a decrease in SS.
In the models adjusted for potential confounders, HRs for LRE were higher in the groups of women reporting SS ≥ 18 both when aged in 20s (HR = 1.39 (95% CI; 0.87–2.23)) and at questionnaire completion (HR = 1.37 (95% CI; 1.07–1.75)). Compared to a decrease in SS, HRs were higher in the no change (HR = 1.78 (95% CI; 0.95–3.34)) and increase (HR = 1.80 (95% CI; 1.01–3.21)) groups.


CLD is associated with high SS and an increase in SS over time. These data suggest SS can be used in simple public health messages about communicating the risk of liver disease.

Trial Registration

UKCTOCS is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, number ISRCTN22488978. Registered 06/04/2000.
Additional file 1: Table S1. ICD-10 codes and death certificate text of first LREs. Summary of the ICD-10 code(s) representing first presentation of liver-related event. Table S2. Hazard ratios for liver-related events for potential confounders (95% confidence intervals and p values). Univariate hazard ratios for liver-related events for smoking, deprivation, alcohol categories, alcohol ≥21 units/week, abstinence from alcohol, BMI, hypertension, heart disease, hypercholesterolaemia, stroke, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis. (DOCX 95 kb)
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