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13.06.2016 | Original Article | Ausgabe 7/2016 Open Access

International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 7/2016

Association between subchronic and chronic lead exposure and levels of antioxidants and chemokines

Zeitschrift:
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health > Ausgabe 7/2016
Autoren:
Michał Dobrakowski, Aleksandra Kasperczyk, Natalia Pawlas, Ewa Birkner, Edyta Hudziec, Ewa Chwalińska, Sławomir Kasperczyk

Abstract

Purpose

This study aimed to compare the influence of lead on the non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses and the levels of chemokines in workers subchronically and chronically exposed to lead.

Methods

The study population was divided into three groups. The first group consisted of male workers subchronically exposed to lead for 40 ± 3.2 days, while the second group included male workers chronically exposed to lead. The third group was a control group.

Results

The levels of uric acid and bilirubin were significantly higher after a subchronic exposure to lead compared to the baseline by 22 and 35 %, respectively. Similarly, the values of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) increased by 15, 50, and 33 %, respectively. At the same time, the levels of thiol groups and albumin decreased by 5 and 8 %, respectively. Additionally, the levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β (MIP-1β) were significantly higher after a subchronic exposure to lead compared to the baseline by 34 and 20 %, respectively. Moreover, IL-8 level was significantly higher by 40 % in the group of workers chronically exposed to lead than in the control group, while the level of interferon gamma-induced protein-10 (IP-10) was significantly lower by 28 %.

Conclusions

Similar to chronic lead exposure, subchronic exposure to lead is associated with elevated blood levels of uric acid and bilirubin in humans. This probably results in increased TAC value despite thiol depletion. However, the compensatory activation of non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses seems to be insufficient to protect against lead-induced oxidative stress, which may be additively enhanced by the pro-inflammatory action of chemokines, especially IL-8.

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