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05.06.2018 | Original Article

Association of Combined Tobacco Smoking, Hormonal Contraceptive use and Status Matrimonial with Cervical Cancer Evolution in Tunisian Women

Pathology & Oncology Research
Sabrina Zidi, Mariem Sahli, Amel Mezlini, Besma Yacoubli-Loueslati


Status matrimonial, cigarette smoking and hormonal contraceptive (HC) use have been associated with cervical cancer (CC) establishment by influencing the CC carcinogenesis process. In the present study, we aim to confirm this correlation between these factors and the risk of CC occurrence among Tunisian population. To evaluate the role of matrimonial status, smoking and HC as cofactors of CC installation, we performed a random selection of 600 women from Salah Azeiz institute in Tunisia and a questionnaire was conducted by doctors for each patient. Logistic regression after adjustment for potential confounding factors, relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) and synergy index (S) were used to evaluate the additive interaction. Subgroup analysis was conducted to examine whether the relative risks changed with CC stages. There were an excess risk among smoker patients and patient with HC use (p < 0.001) for CC installation. Women who are smokers have a 14 times greater risk of suffering from cervical cancer and approximately 24 times greater to develop an advanced form of CC malignancy. Having a history of using birth control pills increase CC occurrence and aggravation (OR~2). The matrimonial status seems an important factor for CC appearance (OR = 3.58 and 2.46) among CC Tunisian patient. However, no significant biological interaction from this three joint exposure was observed in the early FIGO stages but the risk increase in advanced FIGO stages. In our Tunisian cohort, oral contraception, smoking habit and matrimonial status are associated with an overall increased risk of CC development. Indeed, it may damage the local immunity system and may affect the disease severity in patient carriers of some genetic risk biomarkers. The balance of cancer risks may vary among Tunisian CC patient, depending on some environmental co-factors.

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