An erratum to this article can be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12902-016-0085-y.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
ESI participated in the design of the study, study oversight & drafted the manuscript. JML performed the statistical analysis and drafted the statistical portions of the manuscript. LR participated in the design of the study, contributed medical expertise and manuscript preparation and detailed manuscript review. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
The prevalence of pediatric hormonal disorders and hormonally-sensitive cancers are rising. Chemicals including bisphenol A (BPA), phthalates, parabens, 4-nonylphenol (4NP) and triclosan have been linked to disruption of endocrine pathways and altered hormonal status in both animal and human studies. Additionally, changes in estrogen metabolism have been associated with pediatric endocrine disorders and linked to estrogen-dependent cancers. The main objective of the study was to measure the presence of these environmental chemicals in prepubescent children and assess the relationship between chemical metabolites and estrogen metabolism.
50 subjects (25 male, 25 female) were recruited from the principal investigator’s existing patient population at his pediatric primary care office. The first 5 boys and 5 girls in each age group (4 through 8 years old inclusive) who presented for annual examinations were included, as long as they were Tanner Stage I (prepubertal) on physical exam, without diagnosis of hormonally-related condition and/or cancer and able to give a urine sample. Urine samples were collected in glass containers for analysis of chemical and estrogen metabolites. Study kits and lab analysis were provided by Genova Diagnostics (Duluth, GA).
Summary statistics for the concentrations of each chemical metabolite as well as estrogen metabolites were computed (minimum, maximum, median and inter-quartile range) for males only, for females only and for all subjects. Comparisons between groups (e.g. males v. females) were assessed using the nonparametric Wilcoxon test, since the data was skewed. The correlation between concentrations of chemical metabolites and estrogen metabolites in prepubescent children were examined by the Spearman’s correlation coefficient (ρ).
100 % of subjects had detectible levels of at least five chemicals in their urine, and 74 % had detectible levels of eight or more chemicals. Of note, 100 % of subjects demonstrated presence of at least one chemical in each class of BPA, phthalates, and parabens. 28 % of subjects had measurable levels of 4NP. No associations were found between the urine levels of chemicals and estrogen metabolites.
Endocrine disrupting environmental chemicals were detected in all children in the study, with measurable levels of 4NP in nearly 1/3 of subjects. This is the first known published study of 4NP levels in American children. No associations were found between the urine levels of chemicals tested and estrogen metabolites. The presence of multiple chemicals in a majority of children’s urine coupled with increasing prevalence of pediatric hormonal disorders warrants further research to elucidate potential causal mechanisms in pre- and post-pubertal children.
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- Association of environmental chemicals & estrogen metabolites in children
Erin Speiser Ihde
Ji Meng Loh
- BioMed Central
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