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11.08.2018 | Brief Communication | Ausgabe 12/2018

Quality of Life Research 12/2018

Association of individual and area-level socioeconomic conditions with quality of life and glycaemic control in 11- to 21-year-old adolescents with early-onset type 1 diabetes: a cross-sectional study

Quality of Life Research > Ausgabe 12/2018
Christina Bächle, Anna Peneva, Werner Maier, Katty Castillo, Anna Stahl-Pehe, Oliver Kuß, Rolf Holle, Julia M. Hermann, Reinhard W. Holl, Joachim Rosenbauer
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Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s11136-018-1949-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
In cooperation with the German Paediatric Surveillance Unit (ESPED) and the DPV-Science initiative, supported by the German Competence Network Diabetes Mellitus and the German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD)



To analyse the association of area-level deprivation (German Index of Multiple Deprivation, GIMD 2010) with health- and disease-related quality of life (QoL) and glycaemic control (HbA1c) jointly with individual-level socioeconomic status (SES) in young patients with preschool-onset type 1 diabetes.


A total of 425 male and 414 female patients aged 11–21 years from a Germany-wide population-based survey completed the generic KINDL-R, the DISABKIDS chronic-generic module (DCGM-12), and the DISABKIDS diabetes-specific module with impact and treatment scales (QoL indicators; range 0–100 with higher scores representing better QoL). To analyse the association of area-level deprivation and SES with QoL and HbA1c, multiple linear regression models were applied adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables.


Mean QoL scores (SD) were 73.2 (12.2) for the KINDL-R, 76.1 (16.1) for the DCGM-12, 66.2 (19.9) for diabetes impact, and 56.4 (27.3) for diabetes treatment (DISABKIDS). Mean HbA1c was 8.3 (1.4)%. While both QoL outcomes and HbA1c level improved with increasing individual SES, no association was observed between area-level deprivation (GIMD 2010) and either outcome.


Compared with individual SES, area-level deprivation seems to be of minor importance for QoL and glycaemic control in young people with early-onset type 1 diabetes.

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