To view enhanced digital features for this article go to: https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.7643117.
The relationship of total cholesterol (TC) or triglyceride (TG) to diabetic retinopathy (DR) has proven difficult to determine. In addition, there is no report of any study of the correlation between the TC/TG ratio and DR. This study was therefore undertaken to investigate the relationship between the TC/TG ratio and DR in Chinese adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
A community-based study was conducted from August to October 2014 in Fengyutan, Shenyang, China. DR was assessed based on the modified Airlie House classification of DR. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between the TC/TG ratio and the presence of DR.
Among the 420 diabetic participants in the study (157 men; mean (SD) age 61.7 (10.0) years), 76 (18.1%) presented with DR. When the TC/TG ratio was analyzed categorically, participants with T2DM in tertile 2 (i.e., TC/TG 2.91–4.00) were more likely (OR 2.01; 95% CI 1.01–3.99) to suffer from DR than patients in tertile 1 (i.e., TC/TG < 2.91) in multivariable models. Similarly, participants in tertile 3 (TC/TG > 4.00) were more likely (OR 2.59; 95% CI 1.11–3.14; P = 0.011) to suffer from DR than patients in tertile 1. This association persisted when the TC/TG ratio was analyzed continuously (P = 0.014).
We found a novel positive association between TC/TG ratio and presence of DR in Chinese individuals with T2DM. Although longitudinal data are needed, this finding contributes to the accumulating evidence that a high TC/TG ratio may be implicated in DR.
Kempen JH, O'Colmain BJ, Leske MC, Haffner SM, Klein R, Moss SE, Taylor HR, Hamman RF, Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among adults in the United States. Arch Ophthalmol. 2004;122(4):552–63. CrossRef
Yamada M, Hiratsuka Y, Roberts CB, Pezzullo ML, Yates K, Takano S, Miyake K, Taylor HR. Prevalence of visual impairment in the adult Japanese population by cause and severity and future projections. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2010;17(1):50–7. CrossRef
Kostev K, Rathmann W. Diabetic retinopathy at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in the UK: a database analysis. Diabetologia. 2013;56(1):109–11. CrossRef
Fong DS, Aiello L, Gardner TW, King GL, Blankenship G, Cavallerano JD, Ferris FL 3rd, Klein R, American Diabetes Association. Diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(1):226–9. CrossRef
Yau JW, Rogers SL, Kawasaki R, Lamoureux EL, Kowalski JW, Bek T, Chen SJ, Dekker JM, Fletcher A, Grauslund J, et al. Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes Care. 2012;35(3):556–64. CrossRef
Chew EY, Klein ML, Ferris FL, 3rd, Remaley NA, Murphy RP, Chantry K, Hoogwerf BJ, Miller D. Association of elevated serum lipid levels with retinal hard exudate in diabetic retinopathy. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) Report 22. Arch Ophthalmol. 1996;114(9):1079-84. CrossRef
Azad N, Bahn GD, Emanuele NV, Agrawal L, Ge L, Reda D, Klein R, Reaven PD, Hayward R, VADT Study Group. Association of blood glucose control and lipids with diabetic retinopathy in the Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial (VADT). Diabetes Care. 2016;39(5):816–22.
Agroiya P, Philip R, Saran S, Gutch M, Tyagi R, Gupta KK. Association of serum lipids with diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2013;17(Suppl 1):S335–337. CrossRef
Wong TY, Cheung N, Tay WT, Wang JJ, Aung T, Saw SM, Lim SC, Tai ES, Mitchell P. Prevalence and risk factors for diabetic retinopathy: the Singapore Malay Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2008;115(11):1869–75. CrossRef
Yang JY, Kim NK, Lee YJ, Noh JH, Kim DJ, Ko KS, Rhee BD, Kim DJ. Prevalence and factors associated with diabetic retinopathy in a Korean adult population: the 2008–2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2013;102(3):218–24. CrossRef
Liu Y, Yang J, Tao L, Lv H, Jiang X, Zhang M, Li X. Risk factors of diabetic retinopathy and sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy: a cross-sectional study of 13 473 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in mainland China. BMJ Open. 2017;7(9):e016280. CrossRef
Zhang G, Chen H, Chen W, Zhang M. Prevalence and risk factors for diabetic retinopathy in China: a multi-hospital-based cross-sectional study. Br J Ophthalmol. 2017;101(12):1591–5. CrossRef
Wat N, Wong RL, Wong IY. Associations between diabetic retinopathy and systemic risk factors. Hong Kong Med J. 2016;22(6):589–99. PubMed
Liu L, Wu J, Yue S, Geng J, Lian J, Teng W, Huang D, Chen L. Incidence density and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy within type 2 diabetes: a five-year cohort study in China (Report 1). Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015;12(7):7899–909. CrossRef
American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes—2014. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(Suppl 1):S14–80.
Wong TY, Klein R, Islam FM, Cotch MF, Folsom AR, Klein BE, Sharrett AR, Shea S. Diabetic retinopathy in a multi-ethnic cohort in the United States. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006;141(3):446–55. CrossRef
Cheng SH, Cheng CY, Sun NL. Lipid-lowering agents for dyslipidemia in patients who were infected with HIV in Taoyuan, Taiwan. J Int AIDS Soc. 2014;17(4 Suppl 3):19556. CrossRef
Seo SM, Baek SH, Jeon HK, Kang SM, Kim DS, Kim WS, Kim HS, Rha SW, Park JS, Seong IW, et al. Correlations between the level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and cardiovascular risk factors in Korean adults with cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus: the CALLISTO study. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2013;20(7):616–22. CrossRef
Yoshida A, Kouwaki M, Matsutani Y, Fukuchi Y, Naito M. Usefulness of serum total cholesterol/triglyceride ratio for predicting the presence of small, dense LDL. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2004;11(4):215–9. CrossRef
Chua J, Lim CXY, Wong TY, Sabanayagam C. Diabetic retinopathy in the Asia Pacific. Asia Pac J Ophthalmol. 2018;7(1):3–16. CrossRef
Tan GS, Gan A, Sabanayagam C, Tham YC, Neelam K, Mitchell P, Wang JJ, Lamoureux EL, Cheng CY, Wong TY. Ethnic differences in the prevalence and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy: the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study. Ophthalmology. 2018;125(4):529–36. CrossRef
Wang S, Xu L, Jonas JB, You QS, Wang YX, Yang H. Dyslipidemia and eye diseases in the adult Chinese population: the Beijing eye study. PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e26871. CrossRef
Hu Y, Teng W, Liu L, Chen K, Liu L, Hua R, Chen J, Zhou Y, Chen L. Prevalence and risk factors of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in Liaoning province, China: a population-based cross-sectional study. PLoS One. 2015;10(3):e0121477. CrossRef
- Association of the Serum Total Cholesterol to Triglyceride Ratio with Diabetic Retinopathy in Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Community-Based Study
- Springer Healthcare
Research, treatment and education of diabetes and related disorders
Print ISSN: 1869-6953
Elektronische ISSN: 1869-6961
Neu im Fachgebiet Innere Medizin
Meistgelesene Bücher aus der Inneren Medizin
e.Med Kampagnen-Visual, Mail Icon II