Few studies have focused on exploring the association of self-efficacy and suicidal behaviour. In this study, we aim to investigate the association between health-related self-efficacy and suicidality outcomes, including lifetime/recent suicidal ideation, suicidal attempts and future intent of suicide.
A computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) system was used to draw potential respondents aged over 15 in Taiwan via telephone numbers, which were selected by a stratified proportional randomization method according to the distribution of population size in different geographic areas of Taiwan. We obtained available information on suicide behaviours for the analysis of 2110 participants. Logistic regression was applied to investigate the independent effect of health-related self-efficacy on life-time suicidal thoughts and attempts.
Suicidality measured as suicide ideation and attempted suicide was reported as 12.6 and 2.7% respectively in the sample. Among those with suicide ideation, 9.8% had thoughts of future suicide intent. Female gender, low education, people living alone or separated, history of psychiatric disorders, substance abuse, poor self-rated mental health and physical health were associated with suicidality factors. Low health-related self-efficacy was associated with lifetime suicide ideation, prior suicide attempt and future suicidal intent. Among those with recent suicidal ideation, low health self-efficacy was independently associated with future suicide intent after adjustment of gender, age, education, marital status, substance abuse, psychological distress, poor mental and physical health.
Health-related self-efficacy was associated with suicide risks across different time points from prior ideation to future intention. Evaluation of the progress of self-efficacy in health may be long-term targets of intervention in suicide prevention strategies.