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01.12.2012 | Original investigation | Ausgabe 1/2012 Open Access

Cardiovascular Diabetology 1/2012

Associations of sex hormone-binding globulin and testosterone with diabetes among men and women (the Saku Diabetes study): a case control study

Zeitschrift:
Cardiovascular Diabetology > Ausgabe 1/2012
Autoren:
Atsushi Goto, Akemi Morita, Maki Goto, Satoshi Sasaki, Motohiko Miyachi, Naomi Aiba, Yasuo Terauchi, Mitsuhiko Noda, Shaw Watanabe, the Saku Cohort Study Group
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​1475-2840-11-130) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

AG wrote the manuscript and researched data. AM, MG, SS, NA, MM, YT, M.N., and SW contributed to the discussion and reviewed and edited the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Abstract

Background

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels and sex hormones have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. As fatty liver has been suggested to be a major determinant of SHBG levels, we examined whether the associations of SHBG and testosterone with diabetes were independent of fatty liver.

Methods

We conducted a case–control study that included 300 diabetes cases (215 men and 85 women) and 300 matched controls from the Saku cohort study. Diabetes was defined by either fasting plasma glucose levels ≥126 mg/dL, 2-h post-load glucose levels ≥200 mg/dL after a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, or diabetes diagnosed by physicians. We fitted conditional logistic regression models to examine the associations between SHBG and total testosterone levels with diabetes by sex. To evaluate the impact of fatty liver, we used the fatty liver index (FLI), a validated measure derived from serum triglyceride levels, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and γ-glutamyltransferase levels.

Results

After adjusting for age, family history of diabetes, smoking, physical activity, BMI, and FLI, SHBG levels were inversely associated with diabetes among women (odds ratio [OR] comparing the highest with the lowest quartiles, 0.13 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.02–0.96]), but not among men. Similar patterns were observed in a subgroup analysis restricted to postmenopausal women"(OR, 0.12 [95% CI, 0.01–1.17]). In contrast, testosterone levels were inversely associated with diabetes among men (OR, 0.45 [95% CI, 0.23–0.89]), but not among women.

Conclusions

Our findings suggest that SHBG in women and testosterone in men may be inversely associated with diabetes.
Zusatzmaterial
Authors’ original file for figure 1
12933_2012_568_MOESM1_ESM.pdf
Authors’ original file for figure 2
12933_2012_568_MOESM2_ESM.pdf
Authors’ original file for figure 3
12933_2012_568_MOESM3_ESM.pdf
Authors’ original file for figure 4
12933_2012_568_MOESM4_ESM.pdf
Literatur
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