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Erschienen in: Inflammopharmacology 6/2023

21.10.2023 | Original Article

Attenuation of CFA-induced arthritis through regulation of inflammatory cytokines and antioxidant mechanisms by Solanum nigrum L. leaves extracts

verfasst von: Bazgha Gul, Rukhsana Anwar, Mohammad Saleem, Mobasher Ahmad, Muhammad Ihsan Ullah, Shahzad Kamran

Erschienen in: Inflammopharmacology | Ausgabe 6/2023

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Abstract

Solanum nigrum L. is a popular traditional medicine for various inflammatory conditions including rheumatism and joint pain. The current study aimed to evaluate the anti-arthritic mechanism of Solanum nigrum L. Four extracts were prepared using n-hexane, methanol, chloroform, and water. The anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity was carried out with 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body wt. PO of each extract by the hot plate and carrageenan-induced paw oedema methods, respectively. The anti-arthritic study was performed with chloroform and aqueous extracts (300 mg/kg) in complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis. Paw size (mm), ankle joint diameter (mm), and latency time (sec) were recorded on day 0 and every 4th day till 28 days. The hematological, inflammatory, and oxidative biomarkers were estimated. Results showed that significant analgesia (p < 0.05) and reduction in paw inflammation were achieved with all extracts. The highest percent inhibition in Carrageenan-induced inflammation was achieved with 300 mg/kg of chloroform (72.19%) and aqueous (71.30%) extracts, respectively. In the CFA model, both extracts showed a significant reduction in paw size and ankle joint diameter (p < 0.05). The RT-qPCR analysis revealed the upregulation of interleukin-4 and interleukin-10, and down-expression of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, cycloxygenase-2, nuclear factor-κB, prostaglandin E synthase 2, and interferon-γ. A significant increase in superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione levels was observed. Hence, it is concluded that Solanum nigrum L. leaf extracts regulate the expression of inflammatory markers and improve oxidative stress resulting in the attenuation of CFA-induced arthritis.
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Metadaten
Titel
Attenuation of CFA-induced arthritis through regulation of inflammatory cytokines and antioxidant mechanisms by Solanum nigrum L. leaves extracts
verfasst von
Bazgha Gul
Rukhsana Anwar
Mohammad Saleem
Mobasher Ahmad
Muhammad Ihsan Ullah
Shahzad Kamran
Publikationsdatum
21.10.2023
Verlag
Springer International Publishing
Erschienen in
Inflammopharmacology / Ausgabe 6/2023
Print ISSN: 0925-4692
Elektronische ISSN: 1568-5608
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10787-023-01357-z

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