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01.12.2015 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2015 Open Access

BMC Public Health 1/2015

Attitudes and avatars instrument: development and initial testing

BMC Public Health > Ausgabe 1/2015
Annmarie A. Lyles, Susan K. Riesch, Roger L. Brown
Wichtige Hinweise

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

AAL designed the study, participated in the acquisition and analysis of the data, and drafted the manuscript; SKR contributed to the design of the study and helped draft the manuscript; RLB contributed to its design and the statistical analysis. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.



The purpose of the study was to develop and test the initial psychometric properties of the ATTitudes and Avatars INstrument (ATTAIN). The integrated behavior model guided instrument development to measure the young adolescent boys’ attitudes, intentions and actions to change their bodies.


An adolescent health expert panel and young adolescent boys were recruited to test for content validity. Fifty-nine boys 11 to 14 years of age were recruited at a middle school in the USA during physical education class to conduct a pilot study to test for internal consistency and test-retest reliability.


The ATTAIN was found to have high content validity, slightly below recommended levels for internal consistency, and varied test-retest reliability.


The long-term goal of the development and testing of the ATTAIN is to make it available to researchers and professionals to screen and focus on adolescents’ perceptions of their bodies and using those perceptions to attain and maintain healthy bodies. The results of this study suggest preliminarily a theoretically derived instrument with appropriate content for young adolescent boys and variable reliability. The attitudes, intentions, and actions survey items and avatars as measured by the ATTAIN, were meaningful to the boys. The ATTAIN has potential to be used as a screening instrument for young adolescents boys and understanding their attitudes toward their bodies; however, it will require continued development and testing to establish construct and discriminant validity.
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