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01.12.2018 | Case report | Ausgabe 1/2018 Open Access

BMC Medical Imaging 1/2018

Atypical localization of intraosseous angioleiomyoma in the rib of a pediatric patient: a case report

BMC Medical Imaging > Ausgabe 1/2018
Goran Djuričić, Zorica Milošević, Tijana Radović, Nataša Milčanović, Predrag Djukić, Marko Radulovic, Jelena Sopta



This is the first reported case of a primary intraosseous angioleiomyoma and the second case of a primary leiomyoma of the rib, irrespective of age. Angioleiomyomas mostly occur in patients of advanced age, in any part of the body, particularly the lower extremities and present as painful, slow-growing nodules in the dermis, subcutaneous fat or deep fascia. Other localizations, especially bone, are considered extremely rare, as well as their occurrence in paediatric patients.

Case presentation

A 10-year-old girl was admitted to the orthopaedic surgery department for further assessment of a pain localized in the posterior part of the right hemithorax. After magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and surgical biopsy, intraosseus angioleiomyoma of the fourth rib was diagnosed by histopathology examination. Atypical costal localization of this type of a benign tumour presents diagnostic difficulty, especially in children. The differential diagnoses included cartilaginous tumours, Ewing sarcoma, fibrous dysplasia, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, intraosseous haemangioma and metastatic tumours. We report a detailed diagnostic procedure including MRI, selective angiography and histopathologic examination.


Diagnosis of intraosseous angioleiomyoma is difficult due to the extreme rarity of this tumour and absence of pathognomonic radiological signs. Although very rarely identified in bones and young age group, radiographers and reporting doctors should be aware of this possible angioleiomyoma presentation and supported by the provided detailed diagnostic information.
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