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12.10.2017 | Original Article | Ausgabe 1/2018

Aesthetic Plastic Surgery 1/2018

Autologous Buccal Micro-Mucosa Free Graft combined with Posterior Scrotal Flap Transfer for Vaginoplasty in Male-To-Female Transsexuals: A Pilot Study

Aesthetic Plastic Surgery > Ausgabe 1/2018
Shu-Yi Wei, Feng-Yong Li, Qiang Li, Sen-Kai Li, Chuan-De Zhou, Yu Zhou, Yu-Jiao Cao, Si-Ya Zhang, Yang Zhao



The inverted peno-scrotal flap method is considered the standard method of vaginoplasty in male-to-female genital reassignment surgery. Though with numerous advantages, the method has its limitations regarding skin texture, lack of inherent lubrication, and that the tissues for creating the labia depend on the amount of tissues remaining after vaginoplasty. Our purpose was to describe the procedure and outcome of vaginoplasty applying a new technique: autologous buccal micro-mucosa free graft combined with posterior scrotal flap transfer, which could solve some of the problems the previous methods had.


Nine male-to-female transsexual patients received our new method of vaginoplasty from July 2010–October 2015. We described the details of the surgical procedure and evaluated the long-term anatomical and functional outcomes.


In a mean clinical follow-up period of 25.3 months and phone interview follow-up of 50.3 months, we observed that the neovaginas in the nine cases were all of sufficient volume, lined with mucosa, with natural mucosal discharge. The oral donor sites resulted in no visible scars or malfunction. Eight patients experienced uneventful postoperative periods, while one patient suffered from scrotal flap prolapse. All the patients were sexually active and reported sexual satisfaction, with no need of lubrication.


The reported technique achieves the outcomes of creating a neovagina of sufficient volume, without serious stenosis in long-term follow-up. The neovagina is lined with mucosa and has appropriate lubrication as well as good sexual sensation. The reported method is easy and economical to perform and retains enough tissues for vulvoplasty to achieve a superior cosmetic appearance, with rare risk of complications and donor area malfunction. Additionally, this technique is feasible and advantageous to the patients who have insufficient peno-scrotal skin for neovaginal lining as well as those with unfavorable previous vaginoplasty. All of these indicate that this technique is a promising option for vaginoplasty in male-to-female transsexual surgery.

Level of Evidence IV

This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.​springer.​com/​00266.

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