The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/ar3443) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
CS participated in the study conception and design and participated in manuscript preparation and revision. LYD participated in the study conception and design and participated in manuscript preparation and revision. JY participated in carried out the experimental work the data collection and analysis and participated in manuscript preparation and revision. LSJ participated in manuscript preparation and revision. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Programmed cell death of intervertebral disc (IVD) cells plays an important role in IVD degeneration, but the role of autophagy, a closely related cell death event, in IVD cells has not been documented. The current study was designed to investigate the effect of interleukin (IL)-1β on the occurrence of autophagy of rat annulus fibrosus (AF) cells and the interrelationship between autophagy and apoptosis.
Rat AF cells were isolated and exposed, in tissue cultures with or without serum, to IL-1β in different concentrations for 24 hours. Ultrastructural analysis, flow cytometry and lysosomal activity assessment were performed after the in vitro treatment to determine the presence and levels of autophagy. The mRNA expression of autophagy-related proteins (Beclin-1, Bcl-2 and microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)) were evaluated using real-time PCR. 3-methyladenine (3-MA), a PI3K inhibitor, was used to determine the interaction between autophagy and apoptosis via the suppression of autophagy.
Autophagy was detected in rat AF cells under serum starvation condition by transmission electron microscopy. PCR and flow cytometry results showed that IL-1β enhanced the autophagy-induction effect of serum deprivation in a dose-dependent manner. However, IL-1β alone failed to induce autophagy in AF cells cultured without serum starvation. When autophagy was suppressed by 3-MA, the apoptosis incidence was increased. Serum supplement also partly reversed the autophagy incidence without affecting the apoptosis incidence in the same cells.
IL-1β up-regulates serum deprivation-induced autophagy of AF cells in a dose-dependent manner. Autophagy may represent a protective mechanism against apoptosis in AF cells and IVD degeneration.
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- Autophagy in rat annulus fibrosus cells: evidence and possible implications
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