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01.12.2017 | Research | Ausgabe 1/2017 Open Access

Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 1/2017

Autosomal recessive inherited bleeding disorders in Pakistan: a cross-sectional study from selected regions

Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases > Ausgabe 1/2017
Arshi Naz, Muhammad Younus Jamal, Samina Amanat, Ikram Din ujjan, Akber Najmuddin, Humayun Patel, Fazle Raziq, Nisar Ahmed, Ayisha Imran, Tahir Sultan Shamsi



Autosomal recessive bleeding disorders (ARBDs) include deficiencies of clotting factors I, II, V, VII, X, XI, XIII, vitamin K dependent clotting factors, combined factor V & VIII, Von Willebrand Disease (vWD) type 3, Glanzmann’s thrombasthenia (GT) and Bernard–Soulier syndrome. Patients with primary bleeding disorders from all the major provincial capitals of Pakistan were screened for ARBDs. Prothrombin (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), bleeding time (BT) and fibrinogen levels were measured. Cases with isolated prolonged APTT were tested for factors VIII and IX using factor assays This was followed by FXI:C level assessment in cases with normal FVIII and FIX levels. vWD was screened in patients with low FVIII levels. Factors II, V and X were tested in patients with simultaneous prolongation of PT and APTT. Peripheral blood film examination and platelet aggregation studies were performed to assess platelet disorders. Urea clot solubility testing was done to detect Factor XIII levels where platelet function tests were normal. Descriptive analysis was done using SPSS version 16.


Of the 429 suspected bleeding disorder patients, 148 (35%) were diagnosed with hemophilia A and 211 (49.1%) patients had ARBDs. 70 patients (16.3%) remained undiagnosed. Out of 211 patients with ARBD; 95 (33.8%) had vWD type 3. Fibrinogen deficiency was found in 34 patients (12%), GT in 27 (9.6%), factor XIII deficiency in 13 (4.6%), factor VII deficiency in 12 (4.3%), factor V deficiency in 9 (3.2%). Eight patients (2.8%) had vitamin K-dependent clotting factor deficiency, Bernard–Soulier syndrome was diagnosed in seven patients (2.5%), factor X deficiency in 2 (0.7%), factor II deficiency in 2 (0.7%), factor XI deficiency and combined factor V and VIII deficiency in 1 (0.4%) patient each.


vWD type 3 was the most common ARBD found in our sample of patients in Pakistan, followed by fibrinogen deficiency and GT in respective order.
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