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25.05.2019 | Original Contributions | Ausgabe 8/2019

Obesity Surgery 8/2019

Bariatric/Metabolic Surgery Induces Noticeable Changes of Microbiota and Their Secreting Extracellular Vesicle Composition in the Gut

Zeitschrift:
Obesity Surgery > Ausgabe 8/2019
Autoren:
Yeon-Ju Huh, Joo-Young Seo, Jieun Nam, Jinho Yang, Andrea McDowell, Yoon-Keun Kim, Joo-Ho Lee
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s11695-019-03852-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Abstract

Introduction

Microbial ecology is reported to be an important regulator of energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism. Microbes secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs) during their proliferation and death to communicate with other cells. To investigate the roles of gut microbiota in glucose metabolism, we analyzed serial changes of gut microbe and microbial EV composition before and after bariatric/metabolic surgery (BMS).

Methods

Twenty-eight Wistar rats were fed on high-fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity and diabetes. Five of them compared with 5 rats fed on regular chow diet (RCD). Among the remaining 23 rats, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) (n = 10), sleeve gastrectomy (SG) (n = 10), or sham operation (n = 3) was randomly performed. Gut microbiota and EVs from fecal samples were analyzed by 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing.

Results

The present study showed that microbial diversity was decreased in HFD-fed rats versus RCD-fed rats. In addition, BMS reversed glucose intolerance and microbial richness which were induced by HFD. In terms of microbiota and microbial EV composition, both RYGB and SG enhance the composition of phyla Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and their secreting EVs, but decrease phylum Firmicutes and its EVs. We tried to demonstrate specific genera showed a significant compositional difference in obesity/diabetes-induced rats compared with normal rats and then restored similarly toward normal rats’ level after BMS. At the genus level, Lactococcus, Ruminococcus, Dorea in Firmicutes(p), Psychrobacter in Proteobacteria(p), and Akkermansia in Verrucomicrobia(p) fit these conditions after BMS.

Conclusion

We suggest that these genera are the candidates contributing to obesity and diabetes improvement mechanism after BMS.

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