Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare primarily autosomal dominant condition in which the connective tissues of bones, ligaments and sclerae do not form properly. Typically, mutations in COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes lead to the defective formation or quantity of type I collagen, the principle matrix in these tissues. Molecular genetic studies have now elucidated multiple genetic subtypes of the disorder but little literature exists on the risk of retinal tears and detachments in OI.
We report the first case of a child with a rare recessive type of OI, subtype VIII, resulting from a P3H1 (also known as LEPRE1) gene mutation presenting with bilateral giant retinal tears and the surgical challenges encountered in performing retinal detachment repair due to scleral thinning. The P3H1 gene encodes for prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1 which is involved in the post-translational modification of not only collagen type I but also types II and V which when mutated may result in pathological posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) and giant retinal tear detachments.
Genetic analyses are increasingly important in such cases and may guide patient monitoring and potential prophylactic treatment, known to significantly reduce the probability of giant retinal tear detachments in other high-risk collagenopathies such as Stickler Syndrome Type I.