01.01.2008 | Original Article | Ausgabe 3/2008
Biological variations in cadmium, α1-microglobulin, β2-microglobulin and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase in adult women in a non-polluted area
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
- Takashi Yamagami, Tomoko Suna, Yoshinari Fukui, Fumiko Ohashi, Shiro Takada, Haruhiko Sakurai, Keiko Aoshima, Masayuki Ikeda
This study was initiated to investigate the extents of biological variations in cadmium and three common tubular dysfunction marker levels in blood and urine through repeated sampling.
A 12-month survey and a 10-week survey were conducted in an area with no known cadmium pollution. In the 12-month survey, five adult women offered urine samples once every month and blood samples once in every season, respectively. In the 10-week survey, 17 adult women gave urine samples once every week. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for cadmium (Cd-B and Cd-U) by graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, and urine samples were analyzed also for α1-microglobulin (α1-MG-U), β2-microglobulin (β2-MG-U) and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG-U) by conventional methods, all under strict quality control. The results were subjected to statistical analysis to examine the extents of biological variations through-out the study periods.
Variations in geometric means (GMs) for Cd-B, Cd-U, α1-MG-U, β2-MG-U, and NAG-U were all small; the ratio of the largest GM over the lowest GM was 1.1 for Cd-B, 2 for Cd-U and 2 to 3 for α1-MG-U, β2-MG-U, and NAG-U in the 12-month survey, and 1.7 at largest for all parameters in the 10-week survey. The within-subject variations during the 12-month or 10-week periods were however large, i.e., more than 4–5-fold difference between the smallest and the largest values obtained for the same subject. Effects of the correction for urine density to reduce the variations were limited. In contrast, within-subject variation in Cd-B was small with a ratio of 1.3.
Variations in GM values for Cd-U, α1-MG-U, β2-MG-U, and NAG-U at different time of sampling are small so that single measurement would be acceptable as far as the evaluation on a group basis is the study objective. Within-subject variations are wide however, the ratio of the largest value over the smallest value being 4–5 or more, irrespective of correction for urine density. Therefore, care should be practiced when evaluation on an individual basis is intended. Very low within-subject variation in Cd-B may suggest the advantage of Cd-B over Cd-U for individual evaluation among general populations if blood sampling is accepted.