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01.10.2015 | Original Research | Ausgabe 4/2015

Calcified Tissue International 4/2015

Bone Characteristics and Their Determinants in Adolescents and Young Adults with Early-Onset Severe Obesity

Zeitschrift:
Calcified Tissue International > Ausgabe 4/2015
Autoren:
H. T. Viljakainen, H. Valta, M. Lipsanen-Nyman, T. Saukkonen, E. Kajantie, S. Andersson, O. Mäkitie
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1007/​s00223-015-0031-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Abstract

Childhood obesity is associated with compromised bone health. We studied bone characteristics and their determinants in obese young adults. The study included 68 subjects with early-onset severe obesity and 73 normal-weight controls. Data on physical activity (PA), diet and smoking were collected. Bone characteristics were measured using peripheral QCT. The obese and control subjects were similar in age (mean 19.6 ± 2.6 years) and height but BMIs differed (39.7 and 22.6 kg/m2). A clustering of unhealthy lifestyles was marked: Obese subjects reported less supervised PA in childhood, adolescence and currently (p < 0.03) and were more likely to smoke (p = 0.005), and had a lower healthy eating index (HEI) (p = 0.007) but similar alcohol consumption compared with controls. In obese women, all crude bone characteristics were higher than in controls; in men, the differences were smaller. Associations of lifestyle factors with bone characteristics were tested using partial correlations. Independently of BMI, supervised PA in adolescence and alcohol consumption were related positively to bone characteristics in both groups. HEI associated positively with bone characteristics only in controls, while smoking was a positive determinant of bone characteristics only in obese subjects. The multivariate model showed that the contribution of lifestyle factors to bone characteristics was minimal compared with BMI. Early-onset obesity is accompanied by poor dietary quality, sedentary lifestyle, and more frequent smoking, but the overall contribution of these lifestyle factors to bone strength is limited. Bone strength is more likely to be compromised in men and in unloaded bone sites in subjects with early-onset severe obesity. The impact of obesity-related endocrine changes on bone characteristics need to be evaluated in future studies.

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Zusatzmaterial
Supplemental material. Between group differences (= control – obese) in the characteristics of A) radius, B) tibia in men and the characteristics of C) radius and D) tibia in women. Differences were tested with multivariate analysis with models including age, supervised PAss, alcohol consumption, smoking and waist circumference. On x-axis numbering for bone characteristics: 1; Distal Tot CSA [mm2], 2; Tot Den [mg/cm3], 3; Trab Den [mg/cm3], 4; Proximal/Diaphyseal Tot CSA [mm2], 5; Cort Den [mg/cm3] and 6; polar SSI [mm3]. Bars represent mean with 95 % CI (PPTX 138 kb)
223_2015_31_MOESM1_ESM.pptx
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