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28.09.2016 | Behavioral-Bio-Medical Interface (JL Brown and RJ DiClemente, Section Editors) | Ausgabe 6/2016

Current HIV/AIDS Reports 6/2016

Bone Loss Among Women Living With HIV

Zeitschrift:
Current HIV/AIDS Reports > Ausgabe 6/2016
Autoren:
M. Neale Weitzmann, Ighovwerha Ofotokun, Kehmia Titanji, Anjali Sharma, Michael T. Yin
Wichtige Hinweise
This article is part of the Topical Collection on Behavioral-Bio-Medical Interface

Abstract

Clinical data accumulated over the past two decades attests to a significant decline in bone mineral density (BMD) in patients infected by HIV, which does not remit but may actually intensify with anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Long generally perceived as an aberration without clinical consequences in relatively young HIV-infected cohorts, recent studies have documented marked increases in fracture incidence in HIV-infected men and women over a wide age continuum. Fractures are associated with chronic pain, crippling morbidity, and increased mortality, undermining the gains in quality of life achieved though ART. As bone loss and resulting increases in fracture incidence are a natural consequence of aging, there is now concern regarding the long-term consequences of HIV/ART-associated premature bone loss, given the transition of the HIV/AIDS population into an older age demographic. The development of guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of bone disease within the context of HIV and ART has been an important recent step in raising awareness of the problem and the implications of bone fracture for patient health. Significant progress has also been made in recent years in dissecting the complex and multifactorial mechanisms driving bone loss in HIV/ART and the role of underlying immunological disruption in skeletal dysmorphogenesis. This review examines recent progress in the field and studies by Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS)-associated investigators, inside and outside of the WIHS cohort, aimed at identifying skeletal abnormalities, quantifying facture incidence, management, and understanding underlying mechanisms in people living with HIV in the context of chronic ART.

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