03.12.2021 | Epidemiology • Original Article
Both increased and decreased sleep duration over time are associated with subsequent cancer development
Sayato Fukui, Takuro Shimbo, Daiki Kobayashi
Sleep and Breathing
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Changes in sleep duration have been reported to correlate with lifestyle-related diseases in humans. However, equivalent studies regarding the effects of sleep on cancer progression are lacking. This study aimed to determine whether or not increase or decrease in sleep duration over time is associated with subsequent cancer development.
A large-scale, retrospective cohort study was conducted at a preventive medicine health center at a general community hospital in Tokyo, Japan. All participants who underwent health checkups at the hospital between January 2005 and December 2018 were included. The primary study outcome was development of any type of cancer according to the slope of sleep duration over the study period. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to adjust the outcomes based on potential covariates.
Of 15,025 participants, 7,692 (51.2%) were men. The mean age (standard deviation) was 66.0 (7.5) years. During a median follow-up of 2,588 (interquartile range: 1,583–3,695) days, 1,396 (9.3%) participants developed cancer of any type. Compared to hazard ratio in the stable sleep duration group (− 0.1 to + 0.1 h/day in 1 year), both greatly decreased (less than − 0.2 h/day in 1 year; hazard ratio (HR), 2.13; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.72–2.62) and increased (more than + 0.2 h/day in 1 year; HR, 2.55; 95% CI 2.14–3.04) groups showed significantly higher hazard ratio for the development of any type of cancer.
Both increased and decreased sleep duration over time are associated with subsequent cancer development.