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18.05.2017 | Original paper | Ausgabe 7/2017

Cancer Causes & Control 7/2017

Breast cancer and exposure to tobacco smoke during potential windows of susceptibility

Zeitschrift:
Cancer Causes & Control > Ausgabe 7/2017
Autoren:
Alexandra J. White, Aimee A. D’Aloisio, Hazel B. Nichols, Lisa A. DeRoo, Dale P. Sandler
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1007/​s10552-017-0903-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Abstract

Purpose

An association between smoking and breast cancer is unresolved, although a higher risk from exposure during windows of susceptibility has been proposed. The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the association between tobacco smoke and breast cancer with a focus on timing of exposure, especially during early life.

Methods

Sister study participants (n = 50,884) aged 35–74 were enrolled from 2003 to 2009. Women in the United States and Puerto Rico were eligible if they were breast cancer-free but had a sister with breast cancer. Participants completed questionnaires on smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure. Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for breast cancer risk.

Results

During follow-up (mean = 6.4 years), 1,843 invasive breast cancers were diagnosed. Neither active smoking nor adult ETS was associated with breast cancer risk. However, never smoking women exposed to ETS throughout their childhood had a 17% higher risk of breast cancer (95% CI 1.00–1.36) relative to those with no exposure. In utero ETS exposure was also associated with breast cancer (HR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.01–1.32) and the HR was most elevated for women born in earlier birth cohorts (<1940, HR = 1.44, 95% CI 1.02–2.02; 1940–1949, HR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.01–1.62).

Conclusion

In utero ETS and ETS exposure during childhood and adolescence were associated with increased risk of breast cancer and associations varied by birth cohort.

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