The online version of this article (doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-017-0997-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The built environment influences behaviour, like physical activity, diet and sleep, which affects the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study systematically reviewed and meta-analysed evidence on the association between built environmental characteristics related to lifestyle behaviour and T2DM risk/prevalence, worldwide.
We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE.com and Web of Science from their inception to 6 June 2017. Studies were included with adult populations (>18 years), T2DM or glycaemic markers as outcomes, and physical activity and/or food environment and/or residential noise as independent variables. We excluded studies of specific subsamples of the population, that focused on built environmental characteristics that directly affect the cardiovascular system, that performed prediction analyses and that do not report original research. Data appraisal and extraction were based on published reports (PROSPERO-ID: CRD42016035663).
From 11,279 studies, 109 were eligible and 40 were meta-analysed. Living in an urban residence was associated with higher T2DM risk/prevalence (n = 19, odds ratio (OR) = 1.40; 95% CI, 1.2–1.6; I2 = 83%) compared to living in a rural residence. Higher neighbourhood walkability was associated with lower T2DM risk/prevalence (n = 8, OR = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.7–0.9; I2 = 92%) and more green space tended to be associated with lower T2DM risk/prevalence (n = 6, OR = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.8–1.0; I2 = 95%). No convincing evidence was found of an association between food environment with T2DM risk/prevalence.
An important strength of the study was the comprehensive overview of the literature, but our study was limited by the conclusion of mainly cross-sectional studies. In addition to other positive consequences of walkability and access to green space, these environmental characteristics may also contribute to T2DM prevention. These results may be relevant for infrastructure planning.
Additional file 1: Search strategy (DOCX 21 kb)12916_2017_997_MOESM1_ESM.docx
Additional file 2: Study characteristics and results of studies with a weak quality rating (DOCX 43 kb)12916_2017_997_MOESM2_ESM.docx
Additional file 3: Sensitivity analyses (ZIP 120 kb)12916_2017_997_MOESM3_ESM.zip
Additional file 4: Study characteristics and results of studies investigating combination environmental characteristics. (DOCX 21 kb)12916_2017_997_MOESM4_ESM.docx
WHO. Diabetes, Fact Sheet. WHO; 2016. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs312/en/. Accessed Sept 2016.
Cho N, Whiting D, et al. Diabetes Atlas, 7th ed. International Diabetes Federation; 2015. http://www.oedg.at/pdf/1606_IDF_Atlas_2015_UK.pdf.
Ising H, Braun C. Acute and chronic endocrine effects of noise: review of the research conducted at the Institute for Water. Soil Air Hygiene Noise Health. 2000;2(7):7–24. PubMed
Angkurawaranon C, Jiraporncharoen W, Chenthanakij B, Doyle P, Nitsch D. Urbanization and non-communicable disease in Southeast Asia: a review of current evidence. Public health. 2014;128(10):886–95.
Schulz M, Romppel M, Grande G. Built environment and health: a systematic review of studies in Germany. J Public Health. 2016. https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdw141.
World Bank list of economies, 2016. http://www.ispo2017.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/World-Bank-List-of-Economies.pdf. Accessed Sept 2016.
Cubbin C, Sundquist K, Ahlen H, Johansson SE, Winkleby MA, Sundquist J. Neighborhood deprivation and cardiovascular disease risk factors: protective and harmful effects. Scand J Public Health. 2006;34(3):228–37. PubMed
Dar HI, Dar SH, Bhat RA, Kamili MA, Mir SR. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its risk factors in the age group 40 years and above in the Kashmir valley of the Indian subcontinent. JIACM. 2015;16(3–4):187–97.
Gangquiang D, Ming Y, Weiwei G, Ruying H, MacLennan R. Nutrition-related disease and death in Zhejiang Province. Asia Pacific J Clin Nutr. 2004;13(2):162–5.
Azizi F, Vazirian P, Dolatshi P, Habibian S. Screening for type 2 diabetes in the Iranian national programme: a preliminary report. East Mediterr Health J. 2003;9(5–6):1122–7. PubMed
Mierzecki A, Kloda K, Gryko A, Czarnowski D, Chelstowski K, Chlabicz S. Atherosclerosis risk factors in rural and urban adult populations living in Poland. Exp Clin Cardiol. 2014;20(8):3152–7.
Njelekela M, Sato T, Nara Y, Miki T, Kuga S, Noguchi T, et al. Nutritional variation and cardiovascular risk factors in Tanzania – rural–urban difference. S Afr Med J. 2003;93(4):295–9. PubMed
Auchincloss AH, Diez Roux AV, Mujahid MS, Mingwu Shen MS, Bertoni AG, Carnethon MR. Neighborhood resources for physical activity and healthy foods and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(18):1698–704.
Christine PJ, Auchincloss AH, Bertoni AG, Carnethon MR, Sanchez BN, Moore K, et al. Longitudinal associations between neighborhood physical and social environments and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA). JAMA Intern Med. 2015;175(8):1311–20. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
Marshall WE, Piatkowski DP, Garrick NW. Community design, street networks, and public health. J Transport Health. 2014;1(4):326–40. CrossRef
Carroll SJ, Paquet C, Howard NJ, Coffee NT, Adams RJ, Taylor AW, Niyonsenga T, et al. Local descriptive body weight and dietary norms, food availability, and 10-year change in glycosylated haemoglobin in an Australian population-based biomedical cohort. BMC Public Health. 2017;17(1):149. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
Frankenfeld CL, Leslie TF, Makara MA. Diabetes, obesity, and recommended fruit and vegetable consumption in relation to food environment sub-types: a cross-sectional analysis of Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, United States Census, and food establishment data. BMC Public Health. 2015;15:491. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
Babey SH, Diamant AL, Hastert TA, Harvey S. Designed for disease: the link between local food environments and obesity and diabetes. California Center for Public Health Advocacy, PolicyLink, and the UCLA Center for Health Policy Res. 2008.
Braun LM, Malizia E. Downtown vibrancy influences public health and safety outcomes in urban counties. J Transport Health. 2015;2(4):540–8. CrossRef
Cai Y, Hansell AL, Blangiardo M, Burton PR, BioShaRe, De Hoogh K, et al. Long-term exposure to road traffic noise, ambient air pollution, and cardiovascular risk factors in the HUNT and lifelines cohorts. Eur Heart J. 2017;38(29):2290–6. PubMed
Sorensen M, Andersen ZJ, Nordsborg RB, Becker T, Tjonneland A, Overvad K, et al. Long-term exposure to road traffic noise and incident diabetes: a cohort study. Environ Health Perspect. 2013;121(2):217–22. PubMed
Cao X, Mokhtarian PL, Handy SL. Examining the impacts of residential self‐selection on travel behaviour: a focus on empirical findings. Transp Rev. 2009;29(3):359–95. CrossRef
Anjana RM, Pradeepa R, Deepa M, Datta M, Sudha V, Unnikrishnan R, et al. Prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance) in urban and rural India: phase I results of the Indian Council of Medical Research-INdia DIABetes (ICMR-INDIAB) study. Diabetologia. 2011;54(12):3022–7. PubMedCrossRef
Du GL, Su YX, Yao H, Zhu J, Ma Q, Tuerdi A, et al. Metabolic risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus and correlated glycemic control/complications: a cross-sectional study between rural and urban Uygur residents in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. PLoS One. 2016;11(9):e0162611. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
Esteghamati A, Meysamie A, Khalilzadeh O, Rashidi A, Haghazali M, Asgari F, et al. Third national surveillance of risk factors of non-communicable diseases (SuRFNCD-2007) in Iran: methods and results on prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, obesity, central obesity, and dyslipidemia. BMC Public Health. 2009;9:167. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
Ntandou G, Delisle H, Agueh V, Fayomi B. Abdominal obesity explains the positive rural–urban gradient in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Benin. West Africa Nutr Res. 2009;29(3):180–9. PubMed
Ramdani N, Vanderpas J, Boutayeb A, Meziane A, Hassani B, Zoheir J, et al. Diabetes and obesity in the eastern Morocco. Mediterr J Nutr Metab. 2011;5(2):149–55. CrossRef
- Built environmental characteristics and diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis
N. R. den Braver
L. J. Schoonmade
J. W. J. Beulens
- BioMed Central
Neu im Fachgebiet Allgemeinmedizin
Meistgelesene Bücher aus dem Fachgebiet
Mail Icon II