The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1476-7120-10-24) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Christian Prinz, Reka Faludi contributed equally to this work.
The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.
CP and RF collected and interpreted the data, carried out the statistical analysis and wrote the manuscript. AW collected and interpreted the data. MA, HG and TU collected and interpreted the data and contributed to the manuscript. AGF collected data, was involved in designing of the study, the drafting of the manuscript and revising it critically for important intellectual content. JUV was involved in the design of the study, interpretation and collection of the data and writing of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
To validate Echo Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV)
High fidelity string and rotating phantoms moving with different speed patterns were imaged with different high-end ultrasound systems at varying insonation angles and frame rates. Images were analyzed for velocity and direction and for complex motion patterns of blood flow with dedicated software. Post-processing was done with MATLAB-based tools (Dflow, JUV, University Leuven).
Velocity estimation was accurate up to a velocity of 42 cm/s (r = 0.99, p < 0.001, mean difference 0.4 ± 2 cm/s). Maximally detectable velocity, however, was strongly dependent on frame rate and insonation angle and reached 42 cm/s under optimal conditions. At higher velocities estimates became random. Direction estimates did depend less on velocity and were accurate in 80-90%. In-plane motion patterns were correctly identified with three ultrasound systems.
Echo-PIV appears feasible. Velocity estimates are accurate, but the maximal detectable velocity depends strongly on acquisition parameters. Direction estimation works sufficiently, even at higher velocities. Echo-PIV appears to be a promising technical approach to investigate flow patterns by echocardiography.
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- Can echocardiographic particle image velocimetry correctly detect motion patterns as they occur in blood inside heart chambers? A validation study using moving phantoms
Alan G Fraser
- BioMed Central
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