Jenny Tohotoa, Bruce Maycock, Yvonne L Hauck, Satvinder Dhaliwal, Peter Howat, Sharyn Burns and Colin W Binns contributed equally to this work.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
JT participated in the data collection and analysis and drafted the manuscript. BM has made substantial contributions to conception and design and in revising the manuscript for intellectual content and given final approval. YLH has made substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data and analysis and interpretation of data; involved in manuscript revision. PH has made substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data and analysis and interpretation of data; involved in manuscript revision. SB has made substantial contributions to conception and design and participated in manuscript revision. CWB has made substantial contributions to conception and design. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Perinatal research on anxiety and depression has primarily focused on mothers. We have limited knowledge of fathers’ anxiety during the perinatal period yet there is evidence that the parenting capacity of a person can be compromised by anxiety and depression. The purpose of this paper is to identify the impact of a father inclusive intervention on perinatal anxiety and depression. The prime focus of the intervention was to provide education and support to fathers of breastfeeding partners with the aim of increasing both initiation and duration of breastfeeding.
A repeated measures cohort study was conducted during a RCT that was implemented across eight public maternity hospitals in Perth, Western Australia between May 2008 and June 2009. A baseline questionnaire which included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was administered to all participants on the first night of their hospital based antenatal education program and was repeated at six weeks postnatal. SPSS version 17 was used for reporting descriptive results.
The mean anxiety levels at baseline for the fathers in the intervention group (n=289) and control group (n=244) were 4.58 and 4.22 respectively. At 6 weeks postnatal (only matched pairs), intervention and control group were 3.93 and 3.79. More intervention group fathers self-rated less anxiety compared to the fathers in the control group from baseline to post test (p=0.048). Depression scores for intervention fathers at baseline (mean =1.09) and at six weeks (mean=1.09) were very similar to fathers in the control group at baseline (mean=1.11) and at six weeks (mean =1.07) with no significant changes.
Both intervention and control group fathers experienced some anxiety prior to the birth of their baby, but this was rapidly reduced at six weeks. Paternal anxiety is common to new fathers and providing them with information and strategies for problem-solving can increase their knowledge and potentially lower the risk of postnatal anxiety.
(Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000667213)
Buist A, Austin M-P, Hayes B, Speelman C, Bilszta J, Gemmill A, Brooks J, Ellwood D, Milgrom J: Postnatal mental health of women giving birth in Australia 2002–2004: findings from the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2008, 42 (1): 66-73. 10.1080/00048670701732749. CrossRefPubMed
Watanabe M, Wada K, Sakata Y, Aratake Y, Kato N, Ohta H, Tanaka K: Maternity blues as predictor of postpartum depression: A prospective cohort study among Japanese women. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. 2008, 29 (3): 211-217. 10.1080/01674820801990577. CrossRef
Leigh B, Milgrom J: Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress. BMC Psychiatry. 2008, 8 (24): -10.1186/1471-244x-8-24.
Marcus SM: Depression during pregnancy: rates, risks and consequences–Motherisk Update 2008. Can J Clin Pharmacol. 2009, 16 (1): 15-22.
Fletcher RJ, Matthey S, Marley CG: Addressing depression and anxiety among new fathers. Medical Journal of Australia. 2006, 185: 461-463. PubMed
Cowan CP, Cowan PA: When partners become parents: the big life change for couples. 1999, Basic Books, Routledge; New York, Reprinted by Lawrence Eribaum Associates
Buist A, Morse C, Durkin S: Men's adjustment to fatherhood: implications for obstetric health care. Journal of Obstetric, Gynaecologic, & Neonatal Nursing. 2003, 32 (2): 172-180. 10.1177/0884217503252127. CrossRef
Condon J: What about dad? Psychosocial and mental health issues for new fathers. Aust Fam Physician. 2006, 35 (9): 690-692. PubMed
Cabrera NJ, Shannon JD, Tamis-LeMonda C: Fathers' Influence on Their Children's Cognitive and Emotional Development: From Toddlers to Pre-K. Appl Dev Sci. 2007, 11 (4): 208-213. 10.1080/10888690701762100. CrossRef
Wilson S, Durbin CE: Effects of paternal depression on fathers' parenting behaviors: a meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychological Review. 2010, 30 (2): 167-180. 10.1016/j.cpr.2009.10.007. CrossRef
Bögels SM, Bamelis L, van der Bruggen CO: Parental rearing as a function of parent's own, partner's, and child's anxiety status: fathers make the difference. Cognition and Emotion. 2008, 22 (3): 522-538. 10.1080/02699930801886706. CrossRef
Zareai M, O'Brien M, Fallon A: Creating a breastfeeding culture: A comparison of breastfeeding practises in Australia and Iran. Breastfeed Rev. 2008, 16 (1): 41-43.
Tohotoa J, Maycock B, Hauck YL, Howat P, Burns S, Binns CW: Dads make a difference: an exploratory study of paternal support for breastfeeding in Perth, Western Australia. Int Breastfeed J. 2009, 4 (15): 10-1186/1746-4358-4-15.
Seligman MEP, Walker EF, Rosenhan DL: Abnormal psychology. 2001, W.W. Norton & Company, Inc, New York
Beck AT, Alford B: Depression Causes and Treatment. 2009, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia
Preisig M, Merikangas KR, Angst J: Clinical significance and comorbidity of subthreshold depression and anxiety in the community. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavia. 2001, 104: 96-103. 10.1034/j.1600-0447.2001.1040s2096.x. CrossRef
Skari H, Skredon M, Malt UF: Comparative levels of psychological distress, stress symptoms, depression, and anxiety after childbirth: A prospective population-based study of mothers and fathers. Bjog-International Journal ofObstetrics & Gynaecology. 2002, 109 (10): 1154-1163.
Martin CR, Thompson DR: The hospital anxiety and depression scale in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis: internal and test-retest reliability. Clin Eff Nurs. 2002, 6 (2): 78-80. 10.1016/S1361-9004(02)00029-8. CrossRef
Bjelland I, Dahl AA, Haug TT, Neckelmann D: The validity of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; an updated review. J Psychiatr Res. 2002, 52: 69-77.
Ballard CG, Davies R: Postnatal depression in fathers. Int Rev Psychiatry. 1996, 8 (1): 65-71. 10.3109/09540269609037818. CrossRef
EscribÃ¨-AgÃ¼ir V, Gonzalez-Galarzo MC, Barona-Vilar C, Artazcoz L: Factors related to depression during pregnancy: are there gender differences?. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2008, 62 (5): 410-414. 10.1136/jech.2007.063016. CrossRef
Ramchandani PG, O'Connor TG, Evans J, Heron J, Murray LAS: The effects of pre- and postnatal depression in fathers: a natural experiment comparing the effects of exposure to depression on offspring. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2008, 49 (10): 1069-1078. 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.02000.x. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Buist A, Morse CA, Durkin S: Men's adjustment to fatherhood: implications for obstetric health care. Journal of Obstetric & Gynaecological Neonatal Nursing. 2003, 32 (2): 172-180. 10.1177/0884217503252127. CrossRef
Nutbeam D: Health promotion glossary Health Promotion International. 1998, 13: 349-364. CrossRef
Lawler PA: The Keys to Adult Learning: Theory and Practical Strategies. 1991, Research for Better Schools, Philadelphia
Hans S, Marianne S, Ulrik Fredrik M, Merethe D, Anniken Bjornstad O, Thore E, Ragnhild E: Comparative levels of psychological distress, stress symptoms, depression and anxiety after childbirth&;a prospective population-based study of mothers and fathers. BJOG. 2002, 109 (10): 1154-1163.
McMillan AS, Barlow J, Redshaw M: A Review of the Evidence about Antenatal Education. 2009, Birth and Beyond, London: DH, 112-
Barclay L, Donovan J, Genovese A: Men's experiences during their partner's first pregnancy: a grounded theory analysis. Aust J Adv Nurs. 1996, 13 (3): 12-24. PubMed
Hsin-Tzu L, Kuan-Chia L, Shu-Chen C, Chien-Huei K, Chieh-Yu L, Su-Chen K: A Birth Education Program for Expectant Fathers in Taiwan: Effects on Their Anxiety. Birth. 2009, 36 (4): 289-296. 10.1111/j.1523-536X.2009.00356.x. CrossRef
Dellmann T: "The best moment of my life": a literature review of fathers' experience of childbirth. Australian Midwifery. 2004, 17 (3): 20-26. 10.1016/S1448-8272(04)80014-2. CrossRef
Liber JM, van Widenfelt BM, Goedhart AW, Utens EMWJ, van der Leeden AJM, Markus MT: Parenting and Parental Anxiety and Depression as Predictors of Treatment Outcome for Childhood Anxiety Disorders: Has the Role of Fathers Been Underestimated?. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2008, 37: 747-758. 10.1080/15374410802359692. CrossRefPubMed
Fletcher R, Vimpani G, Russell G, Sibbritt D: Psychosocial assessment of expectant fathers. Archives of Womens Mental Health. 2008, 11 (1): 27-32. 10.1007/s00737-008-0211-6. CrossRef
- Can father inclusive practice reduce paternal postnatal anxiety? A repeated measures cohort study using the hospital anxiety and depression scale
Yvonne L Hauck
Colin W Binns
- BioMed Central
Neu im Fachgebiet Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe
Meistgelesene Bücher aus dem Fachgebiet
Mail Icon II