Familial and acquired thrombophilia are often etiologic for idiopathic hip and jaw osteonecrosis (ON), and testosterone therapy (TT) can interact with thrombophilia, worsening ON.
Case 1: A 62-year-old Caucasian male (previous deep venous thrombosis), on warfarin 1 year for atrial fibrillation (AF), had non-specific right hip-abdominal pain for 2 years. CT scan revealed bilateral femoral head ON without collapse. Coagulation studies revealed Factor V Leiden (FVL) heterozygosity, 4G/4G plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) homozygosity, high anti-cardiolipin (ACLA) IgM antibodies, and endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) T786C homozygosity (reduced conversion of L-arginine to NO, required for bone health). Apixaban 5 mg twice daily was substituted for warfarin; and L-arginine 9 g/day was started to increase NO. On Apixaban for 8 months, he became asymptomatic. Case 2: A 32-year-old hypogonadal Caucasian male had 10 years of unexplained tooth loss, progressing to primary jaw ON with cavitation 8 months after starting TT gel 50 mg/day. Coagulation studies revealed FVL heterozygosity, PAI 4G/4G homozygosity, and the lupus anticoagulant. TT was discontinued. Jaw pain was sharply reduced within 2 months.
Idiopathic ON, often caused by thrombophilia-hypofibrinolysis, is worsened by TT, and its progression may be slowed or stopped by discontinuation of TT and, thereafter, anticoagulation. Recognition of thrombophilia-hypofibrinolysis before joint collapse facilitates anticoagulation which may stop ON, preserving joints.
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- Case report: primary osteonecrosis associated with thrombophilia-hypofibrinolysis and worsened by testosterone therapy
Michael Ian Jarman
Charles J. Glueck
- BioMed Central
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