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01.12.2018 | Research | Ausgabe 1/2018 Open Access

Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 1/2018

Catquest-9SF questionnaire: validation of Malay and Chinese-language versions using Rasch analysis

Health and Quality of Life Outcomes > Ausgabe 1/2018
Tassha Hilda Adnan, Mokhlisoh Mohamed Apandi, Haireen Kamaruddin, Mohamad Aziz Salowi, Kian Boon Law, Jamaiyah Haniff, Pik Pin Goh



Catquest questionnaire was originally developed in Swedish to measure patients’ self-assessed visual function to evaluate the benefit of cataract surgery. The result of the Rasch analysis leading to the creation of the nine-item short form of Catquest, (Catquest-9SF), and it had been translated and validated in English. The aim is therefore to evaluate the translated Catquest-9SF questionnaire in Malay and Chinese (Mandarin) language version for measuring patient-reported visual function among cataract population in Malaysia.


The English version of Catquest-9SF questionnaire was translated and back translated into Malay and Chinese languages. The Malay and Chinese translated versions were self-administered by 236 and 202 pre-operative patients drawn from a cataract surgery waiting list, respectively. The translated Catquest-9SF data and its four response options were assessed for fit to the Rasch model.


The Catquest-9SF performed well in the Malay and Chinese translated versions fulfilling all criteria for valid measurement, as demonstrated by Rasch analysis. Both versions of questionnaire had ordered response thresholds, with a good person separation (Malay 2.84; and Chinese 2.59) and patient separation reliability (Malay 0.89; Chinese 0.87). Targeting was 0.30 and −0.11 logits in Malay and Chinese versions respectively, indicating that the item difficulty was well suited to the visual abilities of the patients. All items fit a single overall construct (Malay infit range 0.85–1.26, outfit range 0.73–1.13; Chinese infit range 0.80–1.51, outfit range 0.71–1.36), unidimensional by principal components analysis, and was free of Differential Item Functioning (DIF).


These results support the good overall functioning of the Catquest-9SF in patients with cataract. The translated questionnaire to Malay and Chinese-language versions are reliable and valid in measuring visual disability outcomes in the Malaysian cataract population.
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