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01.12.2015 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2015 Open Access

BMC Public Health 1/2015

Changes in dietary intake during puberty and their determinants: results from the GINIplus birth cohort study

Zeitschrift:
BMC Public Health > Ausgabe 1/2015
Autoren:
Carla Harris, Claudia Flexeder, Elisabeth Thiering, Anette Buyken, Dietrich Berdel, Sibylle Koletzko, Carl-Peter Bauer, Irene Brüske, Berthold Koletzko, Marie Standl, for the GINIplus Study Group
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​s12889-015-2189-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

CH and MS were involved in the conception and design of the study, DB, SK, CB and IB in the data acquisition, CH, MS, CF and ET in the statistical analyses, CH, MS, AB, BK and SK in the interpretation; CH drafted the manuscript and all authors revised it critically for important intellectual content and approved the final version to be published.

Abstract

Background

Understanding changes in dietary intake during puberty could aid the mapping of dietary interventions for primary prevention. The present study describes dietary changes from childhood to adolescence, and their associations with parental education, family income, child education, body mass index (BMI), pubertal onset and screen-time sedentary behaviour.

Methods

Dietary data (n = 1232) were obtained from food frequency questionnaires at the 10- and 15-year follow-ups of the GINIplus birth cohort study. Intakes of 17 food groups, macronutrients and antioxidant vitamins, were described by a) paired Wilcoxon rank sum tests, comparing average intakes at each time-point, and b) Cohen’s kappa “tracking” coefficients, measuring stability of intakes (maintenance of relative tertile positions across time). Further, associations of changes (tertile position increase or decrease vs. tracking) with parental education, family income, child education, pubertal onset, BMI, and screen-time, were assessed by logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression models stratified by baseline intake tertile.

Results

Both sexes increased average intakes of water and decreased starchy vegetables, margarine and dairy. Females decreased meat and retinol intakes and increased vegetables, grains, oils and tea. Males decreased fruit and carbohydrates and increased average intakes of meat, caloric drinks, water, protein, fat, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), vitamin C and alpha-tocopherol. Both sexes presented mainly “fair” tracking levels [κw = 0.21–0.40]. Females with high (vs. low) parental education were more likely to increase their nut intake [OR = 3.8; 95 % CI = (1.7;8.8)], and less likely to decrease vitamin C intakes [0.2 (0.1;0.5)], while males were less likely to increase egg consumption [0.2 (0.1;0.5)] and n3 PUFAs [0.2 (0.1;0.5)]. Females with a higher (vs. low) family income were more likely to maintain medium wholegrain intakes [0.2 (0.1;0.7) for decrease vs. tracking, and 0.1 (0.0;0.5) for increase vs. tracking], and were less likely to decrease vitamin C intakes [0.2 (0.1;0.6)]. Males with high education were less likely to increase sugar-sweetened foods [0.1 (0.1;0.4)]. Finally, BMI in females was negatively associated with decreasing protein intakes [0.7 (0.6;0.9)]. In males BMI was positively associated with increasing margarine [1.4 (1.1;1.6)] and vitamin C intakes [1.4 (1.1;1.6)], and negatively associated with increasing n3 PUFA.

Conclusions

Average dietary intakes changed significantly, despite fair tracking levels, suggesting the presence of trends in dietary behaviour during puberty. Family income and parental education predominantly influenced intake changes. Our results support the rationale for dietary interventions targeting children, and suggest that sex-specific subpopulations, e.g. low socio-economic status, should be considered for added impact.
Zusatzmaterial
Additional file 1: Associations between exposure variables and baseline food intake tertiles (PDF 628 kb)
12889_2015_2189_MOESM1_ESM.pdf
Additional file 2: Comparison of lost-to-follow-up and not-lost-to-follow-up participants (PDF 264 kb)
12889_2015_2189_MOESM2_ESM.pdf
Additional file 3: Associations with dietary intake changes stratified by baseline intake tertile (PDF 303 kb)
12889_2015_2189_MOESM3_ESM.pdf
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