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01.12.2019 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2019 Open Access

BMC Infectious Diseases 1/2019

Changing epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance in Vibrio cholerae: AMR surveillance findings (2006–2016) from Nepal

BMC Infectious Diseases > Ausgabe 1/2019
Nisha Rijal, Jyoti Acharya, Shailaja Adhikari, Bishnu Psd Upadhaya, Geeta Shakya, Palpasa Kansakar, Piyush Rajbhandari
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In Nepal, cases of Cholera occur annually either as sporadic or as outbreaks claiming the lives of many in rural areas. The present study is a laboratory based surveillance which aims to analyze the changing epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility trend of V. cholerae strains isolated or referred to National Public Health Laboratory (NPHL) over a period of 11 years (2006–2016).


Specimens of fresh stool /rectal swab either received at sentinel sites or NPHL were processed following standard microbiological techniques. Suspected colonies on selective medium were identified using routine biochemical tests and confirmed by serotyping. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed following Kirby Baeur disc diffusion method.


Of the 836 confirmed isolates, 87% (728/836) were V.cholerae O1 Ogawa,12% (103/836) were V.cholerae O1 Inaba and only 6 isolates were V.cholerae O1 Hikojima. In 2006 all the Vibrio isolates were of Inaba serotype, followed by all 3 serotypes during 2007.During 2008–2014 only Ogawa serotype was isolated while few cases of Inaba again surfaced in 2015. Resistance to ampicillin decreased from 93% in 2006 to 18% by 2010 and again raised to 100% by 2016.Cotrimoxazole resistance remained at constant range (77–100%).Nalidixic acid resistance was 100% since 2006.Ciprofloxacin and tetracycline resistance emerged in 2007, reached a peak during 2010–2012 and declined to 0 by 2016.Susceptibility to Furazolidone has re-emerged.63.6% of the isolates were Multi drug resistant.


With changing epidemiology and antibiogram of V.cholerae in Nepal, the present study reflects the importance of continuous monitoring, which could be used by policy makers and health professionals for better management of outbreaks. Decline in tetracycline and ciprofloxacin resistance along with emerging sensitivity to furazolidone shows that these drugs could make an effective comeback in future.
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