Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) cause the majority of bloodstream infections in Ghana, however the mode of transmission and source of invasive NTS in Africa are poorly understood. This study compares NTS from water sources and invasive bloodstream infections in rural Ghana.
Blood from hospitalised, febrile children and samples from drinking water sources were analysed for Salmonella spp. Strains were serotyped to trace possible epidemiological links between human and water-derived isolates.. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed,
In 2720 blood culture samples, 165 (6%) NTS were isolated. S. Typhimurium (70%) was the most common serovar followed by S. Enteritidis (8%) and S. Dublin (8%). Multidrug resistance (MDR) was found in 95 (58%) NTS isolates, including five S. Enteritidis. One S. Typhimurium showed reduced fluroquinolone susceptibility. In 511 water samples, 19 (4%) tested positive for S. enterica with two isolates being resistant to ampicillin and one isolate being resistant to cotrimoxazole. Serovars from water samples were not encountered in any of the clinical specimens.
Water analyses demonstrated that common drinking water sources were contaminated with S. enterica posing a potential risk for transmission. However, a link between S. enterica from water sources and patients could not be established, questioning the ability of water-derived serovars to cause invasive bloodstream infections.
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- Characterization of Salmonella enterica from invasive bloodstream infections and water sources in rural Ghana
Kennedy Gyau Boahen
Ralf Matthias Hagen
Norbert Georg Schwarz
- BioMed Central
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