The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12975-017-0555-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) make up 50% of the cases of dementia. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of chronic remote ischemic conditioning (C-RIC) on improving long-term (6 months) outcomes and cerebral blood flow (CBF) and collateral formation in a mouse model of VCID. Adult C57BL/6J male mice (10 weeks) were randomly assigned to four different groups: (1) sham-bilateral carotid artery stenosis (BCAS), (2) BCAS + sham RIC, (3) BCAS+C-RIC for 1 month (1MO), and (4) BCAS+C-RIC-4 months (4MO). CBF, cognitive impairment, and functional outcomes were performed up for 6 months after BCAS surgery. The expression of CD31, α-SMA, and myelin basic protein (MBP) was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Additional set of mice were randomized to sham, BCAS, and BCAS+C-RIC. The cerebrovascular angioarchitecture was studied with micro-CT. RIC therapy for either 1 or 4 months significantly improved CBF, new collateral formation, functional and cognitive outcomes, and prevented white matter damage. There was no difference between C-RIC for 1 or 4 months; IHC studies at 6 months showed an increase in brain CD31 and α-SMA expression indicating increased angiogenesis and MBP indicating preservation of white matter in animals receiving RIC. One month of daily RIC is as effective as 4 months of daily RIC in improving CBF, angiogenesis, and long-term functional outcomes (6 months) in a VCID model. This suggests that 1 month of RIC is sufficient to reduce cognitive impairment and induce beneficial cerebrovascular remodeling.
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- Chronic Remote Ischemic Conditioning Is Cerebroprotective and Induces Vascular Remodeling in a VCID Model
Mohammad Badruzzaman Khan
Md. Nasrul Hoda
Mohamed E. Awad
Jennifer L. Waller
David C. Hess
- Springer US