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03.09.2018 | Review article | Ausgabe 4/2019 Open Access

Clinical and Experimental Nephrology 4/2019

Clinical epidemiology of infectious disease among patients with chronic kidney disease

Zeitschrift:
Clinical and Experimental Nephrology > Ausgabe 4/2019
Autoren:
Junichi Ishigami, Kunihiro Matsushita
Wichtige Hinweise
The original version of this article was revised due to a retrospective Open Access order.
A correction to this article is available online at https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s10157-019-01708-7.

Abstract

Infectious disease is recognized as an important complication among patients with end-stage renal disease, contributing to excess morbidity and health care costs. However, recent epidemiological studies have revealed that even mild to moderate stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) substantially increase risk of infection. Regarding underlying mechanisms, evidence suggests various aspects of altered immune response in patients with CKD including impaired function of T cells, B cells and neutrophil. Multiple conditions surrounding CKD, such as older age, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease are important contributors in the increased susceptibility to infection in this population. In addition, several mechanisms impairing immune function have been hypothesized including accumulated uremic toxins, increased oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, low-grade inflammation, and mineral and bone disorders. In terms of prevention strategies, influenza and pneumococcal vaccines are most feasible and important. Nevertheless, the extent of vaccine utilization in CKD has not been well documented. In addition, antibody response to vaccination may be reduced in CKD patients, and thus a vaccine delivery strategy (e.g., dose and frequency) may need to be optimized among patients with CKD. Through this review, we demonstrate that infection is a major but underrecognized complication of CKD. As CKD is recognized as a serious public health issue, dedicated research is needed to better characterize the burden of infectious disease associated with CKD, understand the pathophysiology of infection in patients with CKD, and develop effective strategies to prevent infection and its sequela in this high risk population.

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