Transcranial ultrasound is a useful tool for providing the evidences for the early diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Parkinson disease (PD). However, the relationship between hyper echogenicity in substantia nigra (SN) and clinical symptoms of PD patients remains unknown, and the role of dysfunction of iron metabolism on the pathogenesis of SN hyper echogenicity is unclear.
PD patients was detected by transcranial sonography and divided into with no hyper echogenicity (PDSN-) group and with hyper echogenicity (PDSN+) group. Motor symptoms (MS) and non-motor symptoms (NMS) were evaluated, and the levels of iron and related proteins in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were detected for PD patients. Data comparison between the two groups and correlation analyses were performed.
PDSN+ group was significantly older, and had significantly older age of onset, more advanced Hohen-Yahr stage, higher SCOPA-AUT score and lower MoCA score than PDSN- group (P < 0.05). Compared with PDSN- group, the levels of transferrin and light-ferritin in serum and iron level in CSF were significantly elevated (P < 0.05), but ferroportin level in CSF was significantly decreased in PDSN+ group (P < 0.05).
PD patients with hyper echogenicity in SN are older, at more advanced disease stage, have severer motor symptoms, and non-motor symptoms of cognitive impairment and autonomic dysfunction. Hyper echogenicity of SN in PD patients is related to dysfunction of iron metabolism, involving increased iron transport from peripheral system to central nervous system, reduction of intracellular iron release and excessive iron deposition in brain.
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- Clinical features and dysfunctions of iron metabolism in Parkinson disease patients with hyper echogenicity in substantia nigra: a cross-sectional study
- BioMed Central
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