10.10.2018 | Otology
Clinical manifestations of hydropic ear disease (Menière’s)
European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
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Hydropic ear disease, initially described by and named after Prosper Menière, is one of the most frequent vertigo disorders and one of the most frequent inner ear disorders. It is the syndrome of endolymphatic hydrops which until 2007 could be diagnostically confirmed only by post-mortem histology. In the past, various attempts to formulate clinical diagnostic criteria have been undertaken but were hampered by the inability to ascertain the diagnosis in living patients. With the milestone achievement of endolymphatic hydrops imaging, today the pathology can be ascertained. In this study, we have performed a detailed analysis of the clinical features of hydropic ear disease for the first time by examining a large cohort of patients with morphologically confirmed endolymphatic hydrops using a detailed physician-administered neurotologic face-to-face interview.
During a hydropic vertigo attack, the patients report nausea, vomiting, sweating, urge to defecate, urge to urinate, phosphenes, headache, photophobia, phonophobia and even transient loss of consciousness. A third of the patients does not experience auditory symptoms during the vertigo attacks. Vertigo attacks last less than 20 min in more than one-fourth of the patients. Audiometric hearing loss has its greatest diagnostic value at the frequencies of 1 kHz and below. Cochleovestibular symptom onset simultaneity is associated with a high frequency of drop-attacks. Migraine and autoimmune disorders are not associated with hydropic ear disease.
This study marks the beginning of the clinical characterization of hydropic ear disease. The findings have important implications for the future formulation of clinical diagnostic criteria.