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01.06.2014 | Original Article | Ausgabe 5/2014

Pediatric Cardiology 5/2014

Clinical Outcome, Valve Dysfunction, and Progressive Aortic Dilation in a Pediatric Population With Isolated Bicuspid Aortic Valve

Zeitschrift:
Pediatric Cardiology > Ausgabe 5/2014
Autoren:
Gaia Spaziani, Piercarlo Ballo, Silvia Favilli, Veronica Fibbi, Lorenzo Buonincontri, Iva Pollini, Alfredo Zuppiroli, Enrico Chiappa

Abstract

The aim of this study was to explore the medium-term clinical outcome and the risk of progression of aortic valve disease and aortic dilation in pediatric patients with isolated bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). 179 pediatric patients with isolated BAV were prospectively followed from January 1995 to December 2010. Patients with severe valve dysfunction at baseline were excluded. Clinical outcome included cardiac death, infective endocarditis, aortic complications, cardiac surgery and percutaneous valvuloplasty. Echocardiographic endpoints were: progression of aortic stenosis (AS) or regurgitation (AR) and progressive aortic enlargement at different levels of the aortic root, evaluated as z-score. The median age at diagnosis was 7.8 [2.7–12.0] years. After a median followup of 5.4 [2.3–9.2] years, all patients were alive. The clinical endpoint occurred in 4 (2.2 %) patients (0.41 events per 100 patient-years). A progression of AS and AR was observed in 9 (5.0 %) and 29 (16.2 %) patients, respectively. The z-scores at the end of follow-up were not significantly different from baseline at the annulus, Valsalva sinuses and sinotubular junction, whereas a slight increase was observed at the level of the ascending aorta (1.9 vs 1.5, p = 0.046). Significant progressive aortic dilation occurred in a minority of patients (10.6, 5.6, 9.5, and 19.0 % respectively). The clinical outcome in pediatric patients with isolated BAV is favourable and the progression of aortic valve dysfunction and aortic dilation is relatively slow. These findings may be taken into account to better guide risk assessment and clinical follow-up in these patients.

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