12.10.2016 | Review Article | Ausgabe 5/2017
Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Cabozantinib
- Steven A. Lacy, Dale R. Miles, Linh T. Nguyen
Cabozantinib inhibits receptor tyrosine kinases involved in tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. The capsule formulation (Cometriq®) is approved for the treatment of progressive metastatic medullary thyroid cancer at a 140-mg free base equivalent dose. The tablet formulation (Cabometyx™, 60-mg free base equivalent dose) is approved for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma following anti-angiogenic therapy. Cabozantinib displays a long terminal plasma half-life (~120 h) and accumulates ~fivefold by day 15 following daily dosing based on area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC). Four identified inactive metabolites constitute >65 % of total cabozantinib-related AUC following a single 140-mg free base equivalent dose. Cabozantinib AUC was increased by 63–81 % or 7–30 % in subjects with mild/moderate hepatic or renal impairment, respectively; by 34–38 % with concomitant cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitor ketoconazole; and by 57 % following a high-fat meal. Cabozantinib AUC was decreased by 76–77 % with concomitant cytochrome P450 3A4 inducer rifampin, and was unaffected following administration of proton pump inhibitor esomeprazole. Cabozantinib is a potent in vitro inhibitor of P-glycoprotein, and multidrug and toxin extrusion transporter 1 and 2-K, and is a substrate for multidrug resistance protein 2. No clinically significant covariates affecting cabozantinib pharmacokinetics were identified in a population pharmacokinetic analysis. Patients with medullary thyroid cancer with low model-predicted apparent clearance were more likely to dose hold/reduce cabozantinib early, and had a lower average dose through day 85. However, longitudinal tumor modeling suggests that cabozantinib dose reductions from 140 to 60 mg/day did not markedly reduce tumor growth inhibition in medullary thyroid cancer patients.