This study aimed to evaluate the demographic, clinical features, laboratory data, pathology and other survey in pediatric patients with cryofibrinogenemia.
A 12-year retrospective chart review identified eight pediatric patients at Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.
The female-to-male ratio was 3:1. The mean age at symptom onset and of diagnosis was 10.3 ± 4.6 years and 12.3 ± 4 years, respectively. One child (12.5%) had primary cryofibrinogenemia. The common symptoms were purpura, arthralgia, and muscle weakness (100%). On laboratory examination, cryofibrinogen was positive in all patients. All patients had increased anti-thrombin III while 87.5% and 62.5% had abnormal protein S and protein C, respectively. All eight also complained of neurologic symptoms. One had vertebral artery narrowing, two showed increased T2-weighted signal intensity on the thalamus or white matter, and one had acute hemorrhagic encephalomyelitis on brain magnetic resonance imaging.
This study reports on the presentations of cryofibrinogenemia, which is rare in children. Most cases are associated with autoimmune disease and have severe and complex presentations. Central nervous system involvement is common.