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01.12.2017 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2017 Open Access

BMC Infectious Diseases 1/2017

Co-infection of Schistosoma mansoni/hepatitis C virus and their associated factors among adult individuals living in fishing villages, north-western Tanzania

BMC Infectious Diseases > Ausgabe 1/2017
Humphrey D. Mazigo, Stella Kepha, Godfrey M. Kaatano, Safari M. Kinung’hi



Schistosoma mansoni and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) are co-existence in sub-Saharan Africa and co-infection is common among humans population. The immunological responses characterized with Th2-immune responses for S. mansoni and Th1-immune responses for HCV are responsible for development hepatic morbidities in infected individuals. However, the co-occurrences of S. mansoni and HCV infection, their related ultrasound detectable morbidities and associated risk factors at community levels have not been examined in fishing communities, north-western Tanzania. In this context, the present study covers that gap.


A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1924 asymptomatic individuals aged 15–55 years in four fishing villages (Igombe, Igalagala, Sangabuye and Kayenze) of Northwestern Tanzania. A single stool sample was collected from each study participants and examined for S. mansoni eggs using Kato Katz technique. Hepatitis C surface antigen (HCVsAg) was determined from a finger prick blood sample using a rapid test.


Overall, 51.8% (997/1924; 95%CI: 49.6–54.1) of the study participants were infected with S. mansoni and had a mean intensity of 223.7epg (95%; 202.4–247.1). Of the study participants, 90 (4.7%) were infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Overall, 2. 4% (47/1924) of the study participants were co-infected with S. mansoni and hepatitis C virus. Among the co-infected individuals, 42.6%, 70.2% and 19.1% had splenomegaly, hepatomegaly and periportal fibrosis (PPF). Factors associated with S. mansoni/HCV co-infection were being aged 26–35 years (aRR = 2.67, 95%CI: 1.03–6.93, P < 0.04), 46–55 years (aRR = 2.89, 95%CI: 1.10–7.57, P < 0.03) and having marked hepatomegaly (aRR = 2.32, 95%CI: 1.09–4.9, P < 0.03).


In this setting, S. mansoni and Hepatitis C are co-endemic and a proportion of individuals were co-infected. Hepatosplenic morbidities characterized with hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, hepatosplenomegaly and PPF were observed in co-infected individuals. These results highlight the need for integrated interventions measures against parasitic and viral diseases.
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