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01.12.2017 | Research | Ausgabe 1/2017 Open Access

Malaria Journal 1/2017

Combining indoor and outdoor methods for controlling malaria vectors: an ecological model of endectocide-treated livestock and insecticidal bed nets

Malaria Journal > Ausgabe 1/2017
Laith Yakob, Mary Cameron, Jo Lines
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Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​s12936-017-1748-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.



Malaria is spread by mosquitoes that are increasingly recognised to have diverse biting behaviours. How a mosquito in a specific environment responds to differing availability of blood-host species is largely unknown and yet critical to vector control efficacy. A parsimonious mathematical model is proposed that accounts for a diverse range of host-biting behaviours and assesses their impact on combining long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) with a novel approach to malaria control: livestock treated with insecticidal compounds (‘endectocides’) that kill biting mosquitoes.


Simulations of a malaria control programme showed marked differences across biting ecologies in the efficacy of both LLINs as a stand-alone tool and the combination of LLINs with endectocide-treated cattle. During the intervals between LLIN mass campaigns, concordant use of endectocides is projected to reduce the bounce-back in malaria prevalence that can occur as LLIN efficacy decays over time, especially if replacement campaigns are delayed. Integrating these approaches can also dramatically improve the attainability of local elimination; endectocidal treatment schedules required to achieve this aim are provided for malaria vectors with different biting ecologies.


Targeting blood-feeding mosquitoes by treating livestock with endectocides offers a potentially useful complement to existing malaria control programmes centred on LLIN distribution. This approach is likely to be effective against vectors with a wide range of host-preferences and biting behaviours, with the exception of species that are so strictly anthropophilic that most blood meals are taken on humans even when humans are much less available than non-human hosts. Identifying this functional relationship in wild mosquito populations and ascertaining the extent to which it differs, within as well as between species, is a critical next step before targets can be set for employing this novel approach and combination.
Additional file 1. Sensitivity of temporal dynamics to parameters governing biting response Type. The sub-plots bounded by grey boxes are the parameter sets used in the main text figures to exemplify the five qualitatively different Types (labelled in top-left of these sub-plots). Temporal dynamics are shown for LLINs only (higher line in each sub-plot) as well as for LLINs + 100% coverage of endectocides (lower line in each sub-plot).
Additional file 2. Sensitivity of temporal dynamics to blood-host species composition. The column labels (1:3, 1:1 and 3:1) correspond with the ratio of humans: cattle. The row labels (on the right) correspond with the biting Type (I–V). Parameter ( α, β) values used to produce the different biting Types I–V, respectively, are: 1,1; 0.5,2; 2,2; 2,0.5 and 0.5,0.5. As Fig.  2, the different lines within the sub-plot correspond with increasing levels (for lower lines) of endectocide used jointly with LLINs (bed nets as a standalone strategy are depicted in the top line of each sub-plot).
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