Mulat Yimer, Yohannes Zenebe and Bayeh Abera contributed equally to this work.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
WM: Contributed from inception of the research question to design, analysis, interpretation and preparation of the manuscript. MY: Reviewed the questionnaire, involved in data collection and reviewed the manuscript. YZ: Reviewed the questionnaire and critically reviewed the manuscript. BA: contributed to data analysis and manuscript preparation and critically edited the manuscript. All authors have critically reviewed and approved the final manuscript.
WM is assistant professor of Medical Microbiology, in the department of Medical microbiology, immunology and Parasitology, at college of medicine and Health sciences, Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia. MY is assistant professor of Medical Parasitology in the department of Medical microbiology, immunology and Parasitology, at college of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia. YZ is lecturer in the department of Medical microbiology, immunology and Parasitology, at College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia. BA is associate professor of Medical Microbiology, in the department of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, at College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia.
Bacterial vaginosis, candidal, trichomonal and Gonococcal vaginal infections are a major health problems associated with gynecologic complications and increase in replication, shedding and transmission of HIV and other STIs in women of reproductive age. The study aimed at determining the prevalence of common vaginal infections and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of aerobic bacterial isolates in women of reproductive age, attending Felegehiwot referral Hospital.
A hospital based cross sectional study was conducted from May to November, 2013. Simple random sampling technique was used. Demographic variables were collected using a structured questionnaire. Clinical data were collected by physicians. Two vaginal swab specimens were collected from each participant. Wet mount and Gram staining were carried out to identify motile T.vaginalis, budding yeast and clue cells. All vaginal specimens were cultured for aerobic bacterial isolates using standard microbiology methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed using disc diffusion technique as per the standard by Kirby-Bauer method. The results were analyzed using descriptive, chi-square and fisher’s exact test as appropriate.
A total of 409 women in reproductive age (15 – 49 years) participated in the study. The median age of the women was 28 years. Overall, 63 (15.4 %) of women had vaginal infections. The proportion of vaginal infection was higher in non-pregnant (17.3 %) than pregnant women (13.3 %) (P = 0.002). The most common identified vaginal infections were candidiasis (8.3 %) and bacterial vaginosis (2.8 %) followed by trichomoniasis (2.1 %). The isolation rate of N. gonorrhoeae and group B Streptococcus colonization was 4 (1 %) and 6 (1.2 %), respectively. Bacterial vaginosis was higher in non-pregnant (5.6 %) than pregnant women (0.5 %) (P = 0.002). Religion, age, living in rural area and having lower abdominal pain were significantly associated with bacterial vaginosis and candidiasis (P < 0.05). E.coli, Pseudomonas spp. and S.aureus were frequently isolated. Norfloxacin (75.6 %), ciprofloxacin (79.6 %) and gentamicin (77.6 %) revealed high level of sensitivity whereas high resistance rates were observed for amoxicillin (82.2 %), tetracycline (63.3 %) and cotrimoxazole (62.2 %).
Bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and trichomoniasis are a common problem in women of reproductive age. Therefore, screening of vaginal infections in women of reproductive age should be implemented. Moreover, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and gentamicin are the recommended drugs for empiric therapy and prophylaxis as needed.
Go VF, Quan VM, Celentano DD, Moulton LH, Zenilman JM. Prevalence and risk factors for reproductive tract infections among women in rural vietnam. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2006;37:185–9. PubMed
Hacer H, Reyhan B, Sibel Y. To determine of the prevalence of Bacterial Vaginosis, Candida sp, mixed infections (Bacterial Vaginosis + Candida sp), Trichomonas Vaginalis, Actinomyces sp in Turkish women from Ankara, Turkey. Ginekol Pol. 2012;83:744–8.
Adeyba OA, Adeoye MO, Adesiji YO. Bacteriological and parasitological vaginitis in pregnant women in iseyin, oyo state, Nigeria. Clin Exp Microbiol. 2003;4:11–6.
Prospero FD: Focus on candida, trichomonas, bacteria and atrophic vaginitis. Available at http://womanhealthgate.com/focus-candida-trichomonasbacteria-atrophic-vaginitis/ on July 10, 2014.
Chalechale A, Karimi I. The prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among patients that presented to hospitals in the Kermanshah district of Iran in 2006 and 2007. Turk J Med Sci. 2010;40(6):971–5.
Lamichhane P, Joshi DR, Subedi YP, Thapa R, Acharya GP, Lamsal A, et al. Study on types of vaginitis and association between bacterial vaginosis and urinary tract infection in pregnant women. IJBAR. 2014;05(06):305–7.
Hng NM, Kurtzhals J, Thy TT, Rasch V. Reproductive tract infections in women seeking abortion in Vietnam. BMC Womens Health. 2009;9:1. CrossRef
Eshete A, Mekonnen Z, Zeynudin A: Trichomonas vaginalis Infection among Pregnant Women in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. ISRN Infectious Diseases 2013, 1–5
Trabert B. Risk factors for bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy among African-American women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;197:2–7.
Filho DSC, Diniz CG, DASilva VL. Bacterial vaginosis: clinical, epidemiologic and microbiological features. HU Revista Juiz. 2010;36:223–30.
Mulu W, Kibru G, Beyene G, Damtie H. Associated risk factors for post operative nosocomial infections among patients admitted at Felegehiwot referral hospital, Bahir Dar, Northwest, Ethiopia. Clin Med Res. 2013;2(6):140–7. CrossRef
Kadir MA, Sulymaz MA, Dawood IS, Shams- Eldin S. Trichomonas vaginalis and associated microorganisms in women with vaginal discharge in Kerkuk-Iraq. Ankara Med J. 2014;14(3):91–9. CrossRef
Gupta G, Nandwam S, Agarwal A. Prevalence of candidiasis, trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis among women of reproductive age group. Indian J Public Health Res Dev. 2013;4(2):94–8. CrossRef
Mathew R, Sudhakshina R, Kalyani M, Jayakumars S, Lai B, Banu S. Microbiological profile of vaginosis among women of the reprioductive age group, who attended a tertiary care Hospital. JCDR. 2011;8(5):1548–51.
Begum A, Nilufar S, Akther K, Rahman A, Khatoon F, Rahman M. Prevalence of selected reproductive tract infections among pregnant women attending an urban maternal and childcare unit in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Health Popul Nutr. 2003;21(2):112–6.
Shrestha S, Tuladhar NR, Basnyat S, Acharya GP, Shrestha P, Kumar P. Prevalence of vaginitis among pregnant women attending Paropakar maternity and women’s Hospital, Thapathali, Kathmandu, Nepal. Nepal Med Coll J. 2011;13(4):293–6. PubMed
Xueqiang F, Zhov Y, Yanfang Y, Yutao D, Huiqing L. Prevalence and risk factors of trichomoniasis, bacterial vaginosis, and candidiasis for married women of child-bearing age in rural Shandong. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2007;60:257–61.
Ramie S, Kobeissi L, Elkak F, Shamra S, Kreidiel K, Zurayk H. Reproductive tract infections (RTIs) among married non-pregnant women living in a low income suburb of Beirut, Lebanon. JIN Fect Dev Ctries. 2012;6(9):680–3.
An PK, Khanh NT, Ha DT, Chien DT, Thuc PT, Luong PH, et al. Prevalence of lower genital tract infection among women attending maternal and child health and family planning clinics in Hanoi, Vietnam. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2003;34(2):467–373.
Oliveira FA, Pfleger V, Lang K, Heukelbach J, Miralles I, Frage F, et al. Sexually transmitted infections, bacterial vaginosis, and candidiasis in women of reproductive age in rural Northeast Brazil: a population-based study. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Rio Janeiro. 2007;102(6):751–6. CrossRef
Manandhar R, Sharma J, Pokharel BM, Shrestha B, Pradhan N. Bacterial vaginosis in Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital. J Inst Med. 2005;27(2):2–5.
Mengistie Z, Woldeamanuel Y, Asrat D, Adera A. Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Tikur Anbessa University Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. BMC Res Notes. 2014;7:824. CrossRef
Shayo PA, Kihunnwa A, Massinde AN, Mirambo M, Rumanyika RN, Ngwalida N, et al. Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and associated factors among pregnant women attending at Bugando Medical Centre, Mwanza, Tanzania. Tan J Health Res. 2012;14(3):1–10.
Sutton M, Sternberg M, Koumans EH, McQuillan G, Berman S, Markowitz L. The prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among reproductive-age women in the United States, 2001–2004. CID. 2007;45(15):1319–26. CrossRef
Madhivanam P, Bartman MT, Pasutti L, Krupp K, Arun A, Reingold AL, et al. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among youth reproductive age women in India: Implications for treatment and prevention. Sex Health. 2009;6(4):339–44. CrossRef
Ocviyanti D, Rosana Y, Olivia S, Darmawa F. Risk factors for bacterial vaginosis among Indonesian women. Med J Indones. 2010;19:130–5. CrossRef
Yusuf MD, Chowdhury M, Islam KM. Common microbial etiology of abnormal vaginal discharge among sexually active women in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Southeast Asian J Public Health. 2011;1:35–9.
Watcharotone W, Sirimai K, Kiriwat O. Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in Thai women attending the family planning clinic, Siriraj hospital. J Med Assoc Thai. 2004;87(12):1419–24. PubMed
Sharmila V, Joseph NM, Babu TA, Chaturvedula L, Sistla S. Genital tract group B streptococcal colonization in pregnant women: a South Indian perspective. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2011;5(8):592–5. PubMed
Mohammed M, Asrat D, Woldeamanuel Y, Demissie A. Prevalence of group B streptococcus colonization among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic of Hawassa health center, Hawassa, Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Dev. 2012;26(1):37–42.
Matasubara K, Nishiyama Y, Katayama K, Yamamoto G, Sugiyama M, Muraj T, et al. Change of antimicrobial susceptibility of group B streptococci over 15 years in Japan. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2001;48:579–82. CrossRef
Abera B, Kibret M. Bacteriology and antimicrobial susceptibility of otitis media at dessie regional health research laboratory, Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Dev. 2011;25(2):162–7.
Mumtaz M, Ahmad M, Aftab I, Akhtar N, Hassan M, Hamid A. Aerobic vaginal pathogens and their sensitivity pattern. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2008;20(1):113–7. PubMed
Bhatta DR, Gokhale S, Ansari MT, Tiwari HK, Gaur A, Mathuria JP, et al. Gonococcal infections: the trends of antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Western Nepal. NJMS. 2012;01(02):74–8.
Govender S, Lebani T, Nell R. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Niesseria gonorrhoeae isolates in Port Elizabeth. S Afr Med J. 2006;96:225–6. PubMed
Alzahrami AJ, Obeid OE, Hassan MI, Almulhim AA. Screening of pregnant women attending the antenatal care clinic of a tertiary hospital in eastern Saudi Arabia for Chlamydia trachomatis and Niesseria gonorrhoeae infections. Indian J Sex Transm Dis AIDS. 2010;31(2):81–5. CrossRef
Florence AP, Otim F, Okongo F, Ogwang M, Greco O. The prevalence and antibiotics susceptibility pattern of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in patients attending OPD clinics at St. Mary’s Hospital Lacor Uganda. J Prev Med Hyg. 2012;53:186–9.
- Common causes of vaginal infections and antibiotic susceptibility of aerobic bacterial isolates in women of reproductive age attending at Felegehiwot referral Hospital, Ethiopia: a cross sectional study
- BioMed Central
Neu im Fachgebiet Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe
Meistgelesene Bücher aus dem Fachgebiet
e.Med Kampagnen-Visual, Mail Icon II