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01.12.2015 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2015 Open Access

BMC Women's Health 1/2015

Common causes of vaginal infections and antibiotic susceptibility of aerobic bacterial isolates in women of reproductive age attending at Felegehiwot referral Hospital, Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

Zeitschrift:
BMC Women's Health > Ausgabe 1/2015
Autoren:
Wondemagegn Mulu, Mulat Yimer, Yohannes Zenebe, Bayeh Abera
Wichtige Hinweise
Mulat Yimer, Yohannes Zenebe and Bayeh Abera contributed equally to this work.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

WM: Contributed from inception of the research question to design, analysis, interpretation and preparation of the manuscript. MY: Reviewed the questionnaire, involved in data collection and reviewed the manuscript. YZ: Reviewed the questionnaire and critically reviewed the manuscript. BA: contributed to data analysis and manuscript preparation and critically edited the manuscript. All authors have critically reviewed and approved the final manuscript.

Authors’ information

WM is assistant professor of Medical Microbiology, in the department of Medical microbiology, immunology and Parasitology, at college of medicine and Health sciences, Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia. MY is assistant professor of Medical Parasitology in the department of Medical microbiology, immunology and Parasitology, at college of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia. YZ is lecturer in the department of Medical microbiology, immunology and Parasitology, at College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia. BA is associate professor of Medical Microbiology, in the department of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, at College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia.

Abstract

Background

Bacterial vaginosis, candidal, trichomonal and Gonococcal vaginal infections are a major health problems associated with gynecologic complications and increase in replication, shedding and transmission of HIV and other STIs in women of reproductive age. The study aimed at determining the prevalence of common vaginal infections and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of aerobic bacterial isolates in women of reproductive age, attending Felegehiwot referral Hospital.

Methods

A hospital based cross sectional study was conducted from May to November, 2013. Simple random sampling technique was used. Demographic variables were collected using a structured questionnaire. Clinical data were collected by physicians. Two vaginal swab specimens were collected from each participant. Wet mount and Gram staining were carried out to identify motile T.vaginalis, budding yeast and clue cells. All vaginal specimens were cultured for aerobic bacterial isolates using standard microbiology methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed using disc diffusion technique as per the standard by Kirby-Bauer method. The results were analyzed using descriptive, chi-square and fisher’s exact test as appropriate.

Results

A total of 409 women in reproductive age (15 – 49 years) participated in the study. The median age of the women was 28 years. Overall, 63 (15.4 %) of women had vaginal infections. The proportion of vaginal infection was higher in non-pregnant (17.3 %) than pregnant women (13.3 %) (P = 0.002). The most common identified vaginal infections were candidiasis (8.3 %) and bacterial vaginosis (2.8 %) followed by trichomoniasis (2.1 %). The isolation rate of N. gonorrhoeae and group B Streptococcus colonization was 4 (1 %) and 6 (1.2 %), respectively. Bacterial vaginosis was higher in non-pregnant (5.6 %) than pregnant women (0.5 %) (P = 0.002). Religion, age, living in rural area and having lower abdominal pain were significantly associated with bacterial vaginosis and candidiasis (P < 0.05). E.coli, Pseudomonas spp. and S.aureus were frequently isolated. Norfloxacin (75.6 %), ciprofloxacin (79.6 %) and gentamicin (77.6 %) revealed high level of sensitivity whereas high resistance rates were observed for amoxicillin (82.2 %), tetracycline (63.3 %) and cotrimoxazole (62.2 %).

Conclusions

Bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and trichomoniasis are a common problem in women of reproductive age. Therefore, screening of vaginal infections in women of reproductive age should be implemented. Moreover, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and gentamicin are the recommended drugs for empiric therapy and prophylaxis as needed.
Literatur
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