01.03.2014 | Original Article | Ausgabe 2/2014
Comparative clinical evaluation of different epinephrine concentrations in 4 % articaine for dental local infiltration anesthesia
Clinical Oral Investigations
- P. W. Kämmerer, J. Seeling, A. Alshihri, M. Daubländer
The aims of this study were to compare and evaluate the clinical anesthetic efficacy of five 4 % articaine solutions with and without epinephrine in pulpal anesthesia after infiltration.
Materials and methods
In a randomized, double-blinded, crossover study, ten volunteers received local anesthesia infiltration in the maxillary right central incisor with five different solutions (4 % articaine + epinephrine 1:100,000, + epinephrine 1:200,000, + epinephrine 1:300,000, + epinephrine 1:400,000, without epinephrine). Electronic pulp tester was used to calculate the onset, utilization time, time to recede, and the surface integral under the time–effect curve. Additionally, cardiovascular parameters and post-experimental soft tissue anesthesia were examined.
Onset as well as time to recede was not influenced by the epinephrine concentration. When using the epinephrine-free agent, time to recede was significantly shorter. Upon decreasing epinephrine concentration, duration of pulpal anesthesia and total anesthetic efficacy declined. The shortest time of anesthesia and lowest anesthetic efficacy were seen for the solution without epinephrine. No association was found between the local anesthetic drug and cardiovascular parameters. Soft tissue anesthesia was significantly shorter without epinephrine.
This study shows the substantial benefits of vasoconstrictors in dental infiltration anesthesia. These findings were reflected by means of prolonged and deeper therapeutic effect in a dose-dependent manner.
Even when utilizing agents with reduced amount of epinephrine, a safe anesthesia is possible. The epinephrine-free solutions resulted in a distinct limitation of utilization time and efficacy.