The online version of this article (https://doi.org/10.1186/s13613-018-0354-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Nazzareno Fagoni and Simone Piva contributed equally to this paper
Frank Rasulo and Nicola Latronico contributed equally to this paper
Weaning protocols expedite extubation in mechanically ventilated patients, yet the literature investigating the application in tracheostomized patients remains scarce. The primary objective of this parallel randomized controlled pilot trial (RCT) was to assess the feasibility and safety of a nurse-led weaning protocol (protocol) compared to weaning based on physician’s clinical judgment (control) in tracheostomized critically ill patients.
We enrolled 65 patients, 27 were in the protocol group and 38 in the control group. Of 27 patients in the protocol group, 1 (3.7%) died in the ICU, 24 (88.9%) were successfully weaned from tracheostomy, and 2 (7.4%) were transferred still on the ventilator. Of 38 patients in the control group, 2 (5.3%) died in the ICU, 22 (57.9%) were successfully weaned from tracheostomy, and 14 were transferred still on the ventilator (36.8%). Risk of being discharged from the ICU on the ventilator was higher in the control group (relative risk: 1.5, IC 95% 1.14–2.01). Concerning safety and feasibility, no patients were excluded after randomization. There was no crossover between the two study arms nor missing data, and no severe adverse event related to the study protocol application was recorded by the staff. Weaning time and rate of successful weaning were not different in the protocol group compared to the control group (long-rank test, p = 0.31 for MV duration, p = 0.45 for weaning time). Based on our results and assuming a 30% reduction of the weaning time for the protocol group, 280 patients would be needed for a RCT to establish efficacy.
In this pilot RCT we demonstrated that a nurse-led weaning protocol from tracheostomy was feasible and safe. A larger RCT is justified to assess efficacy.
Additional file 1. Table S1: Modified Burns Weaning Assessment Program (M-BWAP) checklist. Table S2: Sensitivity analysis for weaning time, duration of MV and successful weaning, considering patients still ventilated at ICU discharge as weaned. Figure S1: Schematic presentation of the of the weaning process in the orotracheal intubated patients and in the control group.
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- Comparison between a nurse-led weaning protocol and weaning based on physician’s clinical judgment in tracheostomized critically ill patients: a pilot randomized controlled clinical trial
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