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05.03.2018 | Original Contribution | Ausgabe 6/2018

European Journal of Nutrition 6/2018

Consumption of fruit and vegetables in relation with psychological disorders in Iranian adults

Zeitschrift:
European Journal of Nutrition > Ausgabe 6/2018
Autoren:
Faezeh Saghafian, Hanieh Malmir, Parvane Saneei, Ammar Hassanzadeh Keshteli, Mohammad Javad Hosseinzadeh-Attar, Hamid Afshar, Fereydoun Siassi, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh, Peyman Adibi

Abstract

Objective

Findings from observational studies on the relationship between fruit and vegetables consumption and risk of mental disorders are contradictory. We aimed to examine the association between fruit and vegetables intake and prevalence of depression, anxiety, and psychological distress in a large group of Iranian adults.

Methods

This cross-sectional study was conducted on 3362 people of Iranian adults working in 50 health centers. Dietary data were collected using a validated dish-based 106-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The Iranian-validated version of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to screen for anxiety and depression. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was used to assess psychological distress.

Results

The prevalence of depression, anxiety, and high psychological distress among the study population was 30.0, 15.2, and 25.0%, respectively. Women in the top quintile of fruit intake, compared with those in the bottom quintile, had 57, 50, and 60% lower odds of depression, anxiety, and psychological distress. Consumption of vegetables was significantly associated with lower odds of depression (OR 0.65; 95% CI 0.46, 0.93) in women and lower odds of anxiety (OR 0.43; 95% CI 0.22, 0.87) in men. In addition, after adjustment for potential confounders, women in the highest quintile of fruit and vegetables intake, compared with those in the bottom quintile, had significantly lower odds of depression (OR 0.55; 95% CI 0.37, 0.80) and psychological distress (OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.40, 0.90). Furthermore, high intake of total fruit and vegetables was associated with lower odds of psychological distress (OR 0.42; 95% CI 0.21, 0.81) in men.

Conclusion

We found significant inverse associations between high intake of fruit with depression, anxiety, and psychological distress in Iranian women. High consumption of vegetables was also associated with lower risk of depression and anxiety, respectively, in women and men. In addition, high intake of total fruit and vegetable was associated with lower odds of depression and psychological distress in women and men.

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