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01.12.2012 | Review | Ausgabe 1/2012 Open Access

Annals of Intensive Care 1/2012

Continuous beta-lactam infusion in critically ill patients: the clinical evidence

Annals of Intensive Care > Ausgabe 1/2012
Mohd H Abdul-Aziz, Joel M Dulhunty, Rinaldo Bellomo, Jeffrey Lipman, Jason A Roberts
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​2110-5820-2-37) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Competing interests

Mohd Abdul Aziz, Dr. Joel Dulhunty, and Prof Rinaldo Bellomo have no conflicts of interest. Dr. Jason Roberts has served for a consultant for Astra Zeneca, Pfizer, Gilead, and Janssen-Cilag. Prof. Jeffrey Lipman has received research grants from Astra Zeneca and has attended Advisory Boards, acted as a consultant to, or given lectures with honoraria from Astra-Zeneca, Janssen-Cilag, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Pfizer, and Wyeth Australia.

Authors’ contributions

JD and RB conceived the topic review idea and proposal. MA-A, JD, JL, and JR performed the literature search and selected the relevant articles to be discussed. All authors participated in design, coordination, and writing of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.


There is controversy over whether traditional intermittent bolus dosing or continuous infusion of beta-lactam antibiotics is preferable in critically ill patients. No significant difference between these two dosing strategies in terms of patient outcomes has been shown yet. This is despite compelling in vitro and in vivo pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) data. A lack of significance in clinical outcome studies may be due to several methodological flaws potentially masking the benefits of continuous infusion observed in preclinical studies. In this review, we explore the methodological shortcomings of the published clinical studies and describe the criteria that should be considered for performing a definitive clinical trial. We found that most trials utilized inconsistent antibiotic doses and recruited only small numbers of heterogeneous patient groups. The results of these trials suggest that continuous infusion of beta-lactam antibiotics may have variable efficacy in different patient groups. Patients who may benefit from continuous infusion are critically ill patients with a high level of illness severity. Thus, future trials should test the potential clinical advantages of continuous infusion in this patient population. To further ascertain whether benefits of continuous infusion in critically ill patients do exist, a large-scale, prospective, multinational trial with a robust design is required.
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