The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
ASB analysed and interpreted the data and wrote the manuscript; SH analysed and interpreted the data and reviewed the manuscript; LJ analysed the data and reviewed the manuscript; KD designed the study, interpreted the data and wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Studies suggest a relationship between sitting time and cardiovascular disease mortality. Our aim was to identify socio-demographic, contextual, and clinical (e.g., body composition, diabetes duration) correlates of self-reported sitting time among adults with type 2 diabetes, a clinical population at high risk for cardiovascular disease. We sought to determine if there was an inverse relationship between sitting and step counts in a diabetes cohort in whom we had previously identified low step counts with further lowering in fall/winter.
The cohort included 198 adults (54 % men; age 60.0 SD 11.5 years; Body mass index 30.4 SD 5.6 kg/m2) (Montréal, Canada). Socio-demographic, contextual and clinical factors were assessed using standardized questionnaires and step counts with a pedometer over 14 days (concealed viewing windows). Total sitting time was estimated once per season (up to 4 times per year at –month intervals) using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short version. Potential sitting time correlates were evaluated using Bayesian longitudinal hierarchical linear regression models in participants with sitting time data (n = 191).
The average sitting time was 308 (SD 161) minutes/day without variation across seasons. Sitting time correlates were being an immigrant (56 fewer minutes/day spent sitting compared to non- immigrants, 95 % credible interval, CrI: −100, −11) and having a university degree (55 more minutes/day spent sitting compared to those without a university degree, 95 % CrI: 10, 100) after adjustment for potential correlates observed in univariate analyses (sex, age, job status, waist circumference, depressed mood, steps). Correlation between sitting and steps, adjusted for age and sex, was −0.144 (95 % CI: −0.280, 0.002).
There was low correlation between sitting time and step counts. Therefore, high sitting time and low step counts are behaviours that may need to be independently targeted. Interventions to reduce sitting time in adults with type 2 diabetes may need to target non-immigrants and those with a university degree.