The correlation of serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) and Klotho protein levels with bone mineral density (BMD) in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients was analyzed.
Between January 2015 and November 2015, 125 MHD patients in our hospital were enrolled. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to examine the BMD in the femoral neck and lumbar spine of MHD patients. The patients were divided into three groups: a normal bone mass group, an osteopenia group, and an osteoporosis group. An ELISA was performed to measure serum FGF-23, Klotho protein, and 1,25(OH)2VitD3 levels. Other parameters, including calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and parathyroid hormone, were also measured.
Of the 125 MHD patients, 82.40% of patients had femoral neck osteopenia, and 56.00% of patients had lumbar spinal osteopenia. The serum FGF-23 level was highest in the osteoporosis group. However, there was no significant difference in serum FGF-23 levels among the three groups, depending on femoral neck and lumbar spinal BMD (P > 0.05). Spearman’s correlation analysis also pointed to a lack of correlation between serum FGF-23 levels and BMD. Among the three groups, there were significant differences in serum Klotho protein levels and femoral neck BMD (P < 0.05). Serum Klotho protein levels in the osteoporosis group were clearly lower than those in the normal bone mass group and osteopenia group (P < 0.05). Similarly, serum Klotho protein levels were significantly lower in those with lumbar spinal osteopenia as compared with those in the normal group. There was a positive correlation between serum Klotho protein levels and BMD and T values for the femoral neck and lumbar spine. The results of a multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the serum Klotho protein level was one of the main factors affecting BMD in MHD patients.
The serum level of FGF-23 was not correlated with a change in BMD of MHD patients, whereas the serum Klotho protein level was associated with the degree of BMD. A high Klotho protein level may decrease the severity of chronic kidney disease and mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) in MHD patients with low BMD.