20.01.2022 | COVID-19 | Review
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Pharmaco-immunomodulatory interventions for averting cytokine storm-linked disease severity in SARS-CoV-2 infection
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The year 2020 is characterised by the COVID-19 pandemic that has quelled more than half a million lives in recent months. We are still coping with the negative repercussions of COVID-19 pandemic in 2021, in which the 2nd wave in India resulted in a high fatality rate. Regardless of emergency vaccine approvals and subsequent meteoric global vaccination drives in some countries, hospitalisations for COVID-19 will continue to occur due to the propensity of mutation in SARS-CoV-2 virus. The immune response plays a vital role in the control and resolution of infectious diseases. However, an impaired immune response is responsible for the severity of the respiratory distress in many diseases. The severe COVID-19 infection persuaded cytokine storm that has been linked with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), culminates into vital organ failures and eventual death. Thus, safe and effective therapeutics to treat hospitalised patients remains a significant unmet clinical need. In that state, any clue of possible treatments, which save patients life, can be treasured for this time point. Many cohorts and clinical trial studies demonstrated that timely administration of immunomodulatory drugs on severe COVID-19 patients may mitigate the disease severity, hospital stay and mortality. This article addresses the severity and risk factors of hypercytokinemia in COVID-19 patients, with special emphasis on prospective immunomodulatory therapies.