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10.06.2020 | COVID-19 | Original Article Zur Zeit gratis

Phenomenon of depression and anxiety related to precautions for prevention among population during the outbreak of COVID-19 in Kurdistan Region of Iraq: based on questionnaire survey

Journal of Public Health
Hazhar Talaat Abubaer Blbas, Kareem F. Aziz, Sahar H. Nejad, Azeez A. Barzinjy
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The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s10389-020-01325-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Since December 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic has swept the world, causing widespread burden and increasingly hospitalizations. Researchers from around the world have tried to study the virus and its effect with more precision in various fields. The purpose of this study is to identify levels of anxiety and depression with regard to precautionary for prevention of COVID-19, and to identify the relationship between demographic variables and both depression and anxiety.


This was a descriptive cross-sectional study; data were collected by questionnaire via a mobile phone application in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq from 25 March, 2020 to 5 April, 2020. The sample size was 894 after deleting 20 cases because of duplication. The questionnaire consists of three main parts; part one is related to the sociodemographic characteristics of participants, the second and third parts consist of items related to depression and anxiety about COVID-19 using a 5-point Likert Scale (1 = of course no, 2 = no , 3 = normal for me, 4 = yes, and 5 = of course yes). Data was analyzed using SPSS V.25.


The majority of the participants were from Erbil (58.8%), most of them were male (58.4%); nearly 21.2% preferred quarantine and 41.7% chose curfew as a best way to to avoid being infected by COVID-19. Most of the participants had depression because of people's lack of knowledge about how to protect themselves from the virus (88.14%), while the majority of them had anxiety concerning shopping and contact with infected people (97%) and financial problems (97%). Females had higher rates of COVID-19 depression than did males. There was a significant correlation between age and home setting and anxiety, and a significant association between marital status and level of education and depression. There was no significant association between other variables and depression and anxiety


The findings of the study indicated that the majority of participants were depressed and had anxiety about COVID-19. There was a significant association between gender and depression and anxiety, while there was no significant association between occupation and income, and depression and anxiety.

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