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Erschienen in: Neurological Sciences 10/2022

05.08.2022 | COVID-19 | COVID-19

Predictors of “brain fog” 1 year after COVID-19 disease

verfasst von: Viviana Cristillo, Andrea Pilotto, Stefano Cotti Piccinelli, Stefano Gipponi, Matilde Leonardi, Michela Bezzi, Alessandro Padovani

Erschienen in: Neurological Sciences | Ausgabe 10/2022

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Abstract

Introduction

Brain fog has been described up to 1 year after SARS-CoV-2 infection, notwithstanding the underlying mechanisms are still poorly investigated. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence of cognitive complaints at 1-year follow-up and to identify the factors related to persistent brain fog in COVID-19 patients.

Methods

Out of 246 COVID patients, hospitalized from March 1st to May 31st, a sample of 137 patients accepted to be evaluated at 1 year from discharge, through a full clinical, neurological, and psychological examination, including the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), impact of event scale-revised (IES-R), Zung self-rating depression scale (SDS), Zung self-rating anxiety scale (SAS), and fatigue severity scale (FSS). Subjects with prior cognitive impairment and/or psychiatric disorders were excluded.

Results

Patients with cognitive disorders exhibited lower MoCA score (22.9 ± 4.3 vs. 26.3 ± 3.1, p = 0.002) and higher IES-R score (33.7 ± 18.5 vs. 26.4 ± 16.3, p = 0.050), SDS score (40.9 ± 6.5 vs. 35.5 ± 8.6, p = 0.004), and fatigue severity scale score (33.6 ± 16.1 vs. 23.7 ± 12.5, p = 0.001), compared to patients without cognitive complaints. Logistic regression showed a significant correlation between brain fog and the self-rating depression scale values (p = 0.020), adjusted for age (p = 0.445), sex (p = 0.178), premorbid Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS) (p = 0.288), COVID-19 severity (BCRSS) (p = 0.964), education level (p = 0.784) and MoCA score (p = 0.909).

Conclusions

Our study showed depression as the strongest predictor of persistent brain fog, adjusting for demographic and clinical variables. Wider longitudinal studies are warranted to better explain cognitive difficulties after COVID-19.
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Metadaten
Titel
Predictors of “brain fog” 1 year after COVID-19 disease
verfasst von
Viviana Cristillo
Andrea Pilotto
Stefano Cotti Piccinelli
Stefano Gipponi
Matilde Leonardi
Michela Bezzi
Alessandro Padovani
Publikationsdatum
05.08.2022
Verlag
Springer International Publishing
Schlagwort
COVID-19
Erschienen in
Neurological Sciences / Ausgabe 10/2022
Print ISSN: 1590-1874
Elektronische ISSN: 1590-3478
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10072-022-06285-4