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01.12.2019 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2019 Open Access

BMC Medical Research Methodology 1/2019

Cross-cultural adaptation of the Pain Medication Questionnaire for use in Brazil

BMC Medical Research Methodology > Ausgabe 1/2019
Sheila Raposo Galindo, Manoel Henrique da Nóbrega Marinho, Robert J. Gatchel, Tatiana de Paula Santana da Silva, Eduardo Henrique Soares Viana, Selene Cordeiro Vasconcelos, Murilo Duarte da Costa Lima
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The Pain Medication Questionnaire (PMQ) assesses the risk of opioid abuse in people with non-oncological chronic pain.


This is a methodological study conducted at a hemotherapy centre in Recife, Pernambuco state, Brazil. A Cross-cultural adaptation was carried out by a committee of nine specialists, and we applied the PMQ to a pre-final sample of 40 individuals with sickle cell anemia, in addition to a sociodemographic and clinical questionnaire.


The mean agreement indexes for PMQ equivalences were the following: semantic (0.996), idiomatic (0.970), experiential (0.991), conceptual (0.953), language clarity (0.991), practical relevance (0.906), and theoretical relevance (0.945). Assessment of the PMQ showed that 50% of participants obtained a score equivalent to medium risk of opioid abuse. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the adapted PMQ instrument was 0.705, ranging from 0.641 to 0.736 among its items.


The cross-cultural adaptation of the Pain Medication Questionnaire was satisfactory and easy to apply in the Brazilian population. It is clinically relevant, contributing professional practice and enlightening patients with sickle cell anemia on their behavioral dynamics with respect to opioid consumption. It will also contribute to teaching and research, because it is a useful tool for investigating the risk of abusive behavior in people with chronic pain.
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