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05.06.2018 | Original Article

Cross-sectional study on awareness and knowledge of torture investigation and documentation among Greek doctors and senior medical students

International Journal of Legal Medicine
Christina Orfanou, Costas Tsiamis, Evika Karamagioli, Anastasia Pikouli, Agis Terzidis, Emmanuel Pikoulis
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s00414-018-1875-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.


Doctors in Greece face the possibility of encountering a person that has suffered torture, especially since the high rates of refugees’ and migrants’ inflows that took place over the last years. In order to assess the awareness and the knowledge of doctors and senior medical students in Greece regarding a manual on effective investigation and documentation of torture such as Istanbul Protocol (official United Nation document since 1999), a cross-sectional study was conducted using a structured anonymous questionnaire. The sample was doctors practicing in public hospitals in Greece, doctors volunteering at a non-governmental organization (NGO) and undergraduate medical students in their final year of studies in the Medical School of National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 23, using descriptive statistics and statistical significance tests.
In a total of 289 participants, the mean total score of Istanbul Protocol knowledge was 4.43 ± 1.104 (the maximum possible score was 10) and the mean total score of Istanbul Protocol awareness was 2.04 ± 1.521 (the maximum possible score was 10). The most important conclusion was that among doctors and senior medical students, there seem to be knowledge, awareness, and information deficit about Istanbul Protocol and several issues relating to torture. The overall research outcome highlights the need for the development of a relevant informative/educational program, in order to cover the corresponding existing needs of the population of doctors in Greece.

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